CHAPTER ONE 1.0 INTRODUCTION The effectiveness of any marketing activities does not solely depend on the ability to offer competitive range of product and services rather sack up extensive campaigns for success, knowledge of the influences which affect buying preferences, is called for. Acknowledgement of how buyers behave in the purchase of goods and services, either as consumers or producers of good and services, is very important to marketers aimed with this knowledge, the marketer can manage the marketing functions more effectively and more profitably. This is because Marketers will be able to understand and predict how the consumers or users of his product will react to marketing stimuli. With this he would be able control within the limits of the stimuli from the external environment which marketer does not control therefore emphasis will be channeled toward consumer behaviour. 1.1 Background of the Study The history of consumer behaviour is as old as the hills although historically, it was not called consumer behaviour. Adam was the first consumer when he ate the apple offered to him by his wife Eve. Human being have always looked for food, first as a hunter and later as a farmer. In past centuries, that nobility and clergy may have had enough to eat but the ordinary people often went hungry, as food was a scare resources. In this century, consumer behaviour has become a subject of investigation. After consumer no longer had to struggle to survive and when choice among different alternative become possible. It became important for producers to investigate the criteria of consumer needs or choices. If household income is more than needed for basis rents, food and clothing, discretionary choice emerges, so discretionary income is the income a household can spend freely, after covering this basic needs. Discretionary income first developed in the “higher” social classes and after that it become available to the working classes. However, there are still household in Europe and the rest of the world with low income which in practical terms do not have any discretionary income at their disposal. Several stages of scientific research of consumer behaviour have been described. In each of these stages, a particular approach, point of view, theory or model prevail. The first stage is the pre-scientific stage in which consumer behaviour is observed and discussed from a philosophical and socio – critical point of view. Thorstein, V. (1899) view conspicuous consumption as “the demonstration of affluence in clothing, housing, parties and insure of the upper class”. Consumption is an expression of power and status. The member of the “idle” class competes in this demonstration of richness and extravagance. 1.2 Statement of the Problem It is obvious that managers are always confronted with cultural influences on consumer buying behaviour and choice of product brands. Therefore, marketer face a lot of problems of identifying which of these cultural factors/elements to apply to the overall marketing strategies for the organization’s products offered to the market. Questions like these are normally raised: What impact has religion on consumer choice of product? Does family size influence consumer choice of product in the market? How does belief affect consumer choice of product in the market? Does norms and taboos have any influence on consumer buying behaviour? The above questions and many more are what this study will treat in the course of this research work. 1.3 Purpose of the Study The purpose of this study is to achieve the following objectives:-
1.4 Significance of the Study The study is premised on the impact of cultural influence as a determining, factor on consumer choice of product or brand. It explains the marketers inefficiency in addressing cultural problems which are needed to enhance market profitability and expansion. This write – up would go a long way to provide information to the entire marketers who have little or no knowledge on the study of cultural influences on consumer buying behaviour. At the end of the day, it would promote efficient and effective use of the right channel to market organization’s products. It is hoped therefore, that this study would provide information on the remote and immediate impact of culture influences on consumer buying behaviour that will equipped marketers for the effective and efficient process of carrying out their various activities of marketing.
1.5 Research Question Below are the question which the researcher intend to provide answer to in the course of this research work.
1.6 Scope of the Study The study will cover all the areas or aspect of behaviour determinant such as culture, social and psychological determinant of consumer behaviour. The decision making process involved in buying product will also be looked into alongside with the constraint
1.7 Definition of Terms It is very necessary and important to define some key words used in the chapter and words used in a different context rather than their general meaning. Below are the key words used:- Merit Goods: These are goods providing short term individual benefit and long term societal disadvantage.
Demerit Goods: These are goods providing both long term and short term individual benefits.
Schema: It is a network of association with a product brand, shop or another object. Cognitive Style: It is the manner in which individuals make decision in order to solve problems systematically. Shaping: It is the process of rewarding sequential approbation to desired behaviour. That encourages the consumer to perform the desired behaviour. Attribution Error: Estimate the importance of personal factors relating to environmental influences on persons behaviour, but not on one’s behaviour. Behavioural Domain: It is a set of behaviour frequently organized around a common goal.