The aim of the study was to examine the impact of family conflicts on the academic performance of Undergraduate in Ken-Saro Wiwa Polytechnic, Bori. The actual population of the study comprises of 502 undergraduates in Ken-Saro Wiwa Polytechnic, Bori. The Taro Yamene formula was used to determine the sample size of 222. The instrument used in obtaining data was questionnaire. Data will be analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS, version 21). The Chi-Square statistical tool was also used to test the null hypothesis in the research work from where statistical interferences were made. Findings amongst others revealed that: (1) family conflict has the propensity to hinder students’ academic performance. (2) Student who experience family conflict does not related well with the peers in the school. Based on the finding of the study, it was recommended that: (1) parents or guardians who are experiencing conflicts in their families should consider counseling options as soon as possible to avoid negative effects on their undergraduate children in the schools (2) the Ministry of Education should consider training peer counselors among the students so that they can assist their fellow students. Suggestions for further studies were made.
Table of Contents
Cover Page i
Table of Contents iv
CHAPTER ONE 1
1.1 Background to the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 3
1.3 Objectives of the Study 4
1.4 Significance of the Study 5
1.5 Research Questions 5
1.6 Research Hypothesis 6
1.7 Delimitation of the Study 7
1.8 Definition of Terms: 7
CHAPTER TWO 9
LITERATURE REVIEW 9
2.1 Conceptual Framework 9
2.1.1 Family Conflict 9
2.1.2 Causes of Family Conflict 11
2.1.3 Problems Experienced By Student Facing Family Conflict: 15
2.1.4 Academic Performance: 17
2.1.5 Factors Influencing Academic Achievement 19
2.1.6 The Effect of Family Conflict on Students 23
2.1.7 Effect of Family Conflict on Students Academic Performance 25
2.2 Theoretical Framework 26
2.3 Empirical Framework 27
2.4 Summary of Related Literature 28
CHAPTER THREE 30
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 30
3.1 Research Design 30
3.2 Population of the Study 30
3.3 Sample and Sampling Techniques 31
3.4 Instrument for Data Collection 32
3.5 Validity of Instrument 33
3.6 Reliability of Instrument 33
3.7 Method of Data Analysis 34
CHAPTER FOUR 35
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS 35
4.1 Data Presentation and Analysis 35
4.2 Data Analysis 36
4.3 Hypotheses Testing 42
4.4 Discussion of Findings 46
Findings emanating from the study are discussed as follows; 46
CHAPTER FIVE 49
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 49
5.1 Summary 49
5.2 Conclusion 49
5.3 Recommendations 50
5.4 Suggestion for Further Studies 51
Appendix I 55
Appendix II 56
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background to the Study
The family is the child’s first place of contact with the world. The child as a result, acquires initial education and socialization from parents and other significant persons in the family. Bandura (1989) pointed out that the family lays the psychological, moral, and spiritual foundation in the overall development of the child. Structurally, family/home is either broken or intact. A broken home which results from family conflict in this contexts is one that is not structurally intact, as a result of divorce, separation, death of one of parent and illegitimacy. According to Emery (2004), psychological home conditions arise mainly from illegitimacy of children, the label of adopted child, broken homes, divorce and parental deprivation. Such abnormal conditions of the home, are likely to have a detrimental effect on school performance of the child, he asserts.
According to Tilman (2007), studies carried out have shown that when one form of violence was found in the family, other forms were more likely to also occur and that violence in the family has a direct relationship to community violence and other forms of aggression and gender based violence. Law enforcement in many
countries will not intervene in what is often called a “domestic quarrel” even though psychological research indicates that without such intervention, abusers are unlikely to seek help to stop their battering behaviour. Research has found a strong relationship between violence in the home and violence in the community. Golden (2000) reports that it has been found that prior history of abuse can increase the likelihood of abusive behaviour. According to Steinberg (1996), parental conflict and aggression or a conflict atmosphere in the home is related to offspring’s personal or violent crimes.
Johnson (2005) asserts that children of unmarried parents /separated families often fail and are at risk emotionally. However, this may not be completely applicable in all cases of family conflict. Some children irrespective of home background or structure may work hard and become successful in life. Moreover, Ayodele (2007) stated that the environment where a child finds himself/herself goes a long way in determining his learning ability and ultimately his academic performance in school.
On the other hand, Kiura (1999) asserts that a healthy relationship between husband and wife depends on self understanding, understanding spouse, balance between individuality, mutual relationship, proper management of conflicts, sexual harmony and sound skills in mutual dialogue and communication. He also says that parents need to assume responsibility for their children’s eternal destiny, educate them, prepare them for life and guide them towards the right way. If parents are not in harmony, it follows that their children will suffer too. They not only suffer at home but also when they go to school or visit friends by carrying the burden of their parents with them.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
There is a global awareness of the importance of the home environment on students’ academic performance. In Nigeria, most home are not intact as a result of issues of incompatibility of the couples, death of a parent and the quest for the oversea trips to make more money, and at times marital infidelity. This has resulted in the rapid misunderstanding between couples and children. In some states in the federation, this is quite clear, that most young ladies abandon their homes, and embark on oversea trips with a view to make money. Some men, who travel abroad, abandon their homes and would not communicate with the families back-home so children from such homes are in dilemma, especially in terms of adjustment. Chador (2008) notes that the environment in which the students come from can greatly influence his performance in school. The effects of family conflict may impact greatly on the academic achievement.
There is also the case of street children, some of whom are on the streets because they have run away from violent home environments. These incidents take place not only in rural areas but also in urban ones. Their lives are enclosed or imprisoned if they continue being exposed to a violent environment. For some, such an environment means that they have no access to formal education and their cognitive and affective developments are tampered with. This study, therefore, sought to find out the impact of family conflicts on a pupil especially on his or her academic performance.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The aim of this study was to examine the impact of family conflicts on the academic performance of Undergraduate in Ken Saro-Wiwa Polytechnic, Bori.
In specific terms therefore, the study was to:
1.4 Significance of the Study
Students and teachers, government, parents, authors, and publishers of education textbooks are expected to benefit from the findings of this study. Students are going to benefit from the study because they will discover that family conflict has some effect on their academic performance. This study will benefit the teachers in that it will move them to be conscious of how to interact with students that are facing conflict in their homes. The school management board will also benefit from this study since it will help them to understand the causes of failure students from broken homes and as such proffer unending solution to such problem. The authors of textbooks at all level of learning are not left out among the beneficiaries. This study will enable them to realize the effect of conflict especially family conflict on the students’ academic performance.
1.5 Research Questions
The following research questions guided the development and achievement of the aims and objectives of this research:
1.6 Research Hypothesis
The following hypotheses guided the conduct of this research:
HO1: There is no significant relationship between conflicts in a family and students’ academic performance.
HO2: There is no significant relationship between family conflict and students’ relationship with their peers.
HO3: There is no significant relationship between family conflict and students’ gender (sex).
HO4: There is no significant relationship between family conflict and students relationship with their lecturers.
1.7 Delimitation of the Study
The study is delimited to the following heading: content scope, geographical scope and unit of analysis.
1.8 Definition of Terms:
The definition of the following terms is in the context of this study:
Family: It is a social unit made up of people related to each other by blood, birth or marriage. In this study, family is a social unit made up of undergraduate’s students and their parents (mother and father).
Family Conflict: In this study, family violence refers to problems, oppositions or differences that undergraduates of Ken-Poly face within their families.
Family Violence: Physical force that is intended to hurt or kill within the family set up. It is characterized by serious physical injury, profound psychological trauma or sexual violation. In this study, family violence means physical or psychological injury that undergraduate experience within their families.
Academic Performance: This is how undergraduate are ranked in terms of educational achievement. In this study, academic performance means how the undergraduate fair on in their studies as compared to others in the same class.
Child Abuse: The act of harming a pupil in a physical, sexual or emotional way. In this study, child abuse refers to any harm that undergraduate in public primary schools undergo, be it physical, sexual or emotional.
Conflict: It is a mutual opposition or difference between two parents or between parents and their undergraduate in a family. It is a state of disagreement or argument in a family. In this study, conflict means the disagreements or oppositions that pupil under study face in their families, either directly from their parents or indirectly when they witness their parents’ arguments.