1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The widespread of health-risky behaviors associated with youths illegal drug use has attracted growing international attention. Majorly in Nigeria, unsafe sexual behaviors may have remarkable untoward outcome, considering the high HIV prevalence estimates from the region (Garvin et al., 2013). Unfortunately, students and youth may underrate the harmful effects of unhealthy life styles (McMaster and Keshav, 2013). These unpleasant youthful activities are prevalence in Nigeria and all over Africa, thus giving a lot of worry to the government and general public (Greene, 2009). Drug abuse remains a primary health issue all over the globe (UNODC, 2010). Haladu (2011) describes drug abuse as excessive and consistent self-administration of a drug without regard to medically or culturally acceptable methods. Odejide (2012) posited that a drug is said to be abused when its use is not pharmacologically necessary majorly when it’s used in face of legal prohibition or when socially acceptable beverage is used in excess. Drug abuse may lead to various crimes and alteraion of normal academic programs. It has led to high secret cult activities in tertiary institutions and most Nigerian universities, which has been a root of threat to lives and properties (Aluede, 2012). The impact of drug abuse among Nigerian tertiary students has also been connected with the loss of our societal values and ideals (Aluede, 2012). Drugs change the normal biological and psychological functioning of the body, mainly the central nervous system (Melis et al., 2010). Most of the Nigerian tertiary students ignorantly depend on one form of drug or the other (such as Tobacco, Indian hemp, cocaine, morphine, Heroine, Alcohol, ephedrine, Madras, Caffeine, Glue, Barbiturates and Amphetamines) for their differnt daily activities (Oshikoya and Alli, 2013). In the study conducted by Oshikoya and Alli (2013) on perception of drug abuse amongst Nigerian undergraduates also observed dependence and addiction as one of the major outcome of drug abuse, characterized by compulsive drug hunger seeking behaviors even in the face of negative consequences. Maithya (2009) observed that the primary reasons for drug abuse amongst tertiary students in Nigeria are mostly out of curiosity and peer pressure (acceptance by friends). Kiiru (2015) showed in her study, that peer pressure was responsible for youths’ intake of drugs for the purpose of stimulating appetite for food. Ndom and Adelakun (2010) argued that male children from an unstable families were associated with high risk of substance abuse, this argument is supported with clinical findings by Nyki (2015) observed that cannabis abusers are mainly young Nigerian men, including tertiary students, who have been denied of parental monitoring and care from childhood. Awoyinfa (2012) asserts that the very high rate of alcohol use and abuse among students in tertiary institutions in Nigeria started from their childhood or early youthful age. Sometimes youth, including students, who vend for their parents, are themselves exposed to drug abuse. Some students will experiment and quit, or proceed to use occasionally without significant problems. Others will develop addiction, moving on to more dangerous drugs and causing significant harm to themselves and the society at large (Pela, 2013). Drug use and abuse is the basic reason why many students are incarcerated, as well as a source of crime and health problem in our contemporary society. It has become unprecedented issues in Nigeria that the population of youth incarcerated in several prisons across the country has increase dramatically over the last few decades. As a matter of fact, many of these students have been arrested for drug offences, and/or have a drug abuse problem. Some of the factors contributing to this arrest are the public awareness of the danger in drug abuse and the “war on Drugs” declared by the Federal Government using various agencies like the NDLEA, NAFDAC etc. However, since the year the National Drug Law Enforcement Agency (NDLEA) was set-up in 2012, strenuous efforts are being made to acquire relevant information on drugs through variety of drug indicators for policy formulation. The impact of these agencies in terms of intervention strategies and control is powerful. The world today is witnessing an upsurge of issues that are of global dimension, for example drug abuse, human trafficking, HIV/AIDS, environment degradation and pollution etc. The problems including drug abuse heralded an unending desire in our nation to sensitize her citizens especially the youths of the evil of drug use and abuse which has reach alarming stage. As a matter of fact the social effects of abuse of alcohol which include road accidents, loss of jobs, poor academic and job performances, instability family set up etc. are sources of concern to the government. According to Muoboghare (2015) coaches and athletes should be educated on the deceptive and negative effects of alcohol. He emphasized that this is necessary since alcohol is hyperagglesic, that is it raises the pain threshold, the individual is likely to continue to performance even with injury. This is morally unjust on the part of a coach. Criminals are noted to take alcohol in access that even when they receive gunshot, may still put on a very high performance and escape with the injury without being caught. Despite the effort of many concerned bodies to curb this menace, many organizations and individuals still present these drugs as though they are harmless which often lure irrational youths into drugs and alcoholism. Drug use amongst young people should be a matter of concern to all Nigerians especially the government, school heads, the leaders of various religious groups and other NGOs. The study therefore examines statistical analysis of incidence of drug abuse amongst tertiary students, a case study of Ekiti State University.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The health of young people is a key factor in the promotion and preservation of the health of the population as a whole because it determines the overall level of population health in the short term (Tsvetkova and Antonova, 2013). There seem to be an increasing prevalence of drug abuse amongst adolescents (university students inclusive) despite the efforts of concerned bodies to curb this menace. Universities students are the most susceptible to drug use amongst different youth groups in Nigeria because most of them live outside the watch of their parents or guardian. Hence, a comprehensive statistical analysis of incidence of drug abuse amongst tertiary students, a case study of Ekiti State University.
1.3 AIMS OF THE STUDY
The major aim of the study is to examine statistical analysis of incidence of drug abuse amongst tertiary students, a case study of Ekiti State University. Other specific objectives of the study include;
1 To examine types of drugs among tertiary students in Ekiti State University.
2 To examine causes of drug abuse among tertiary students in Ekiti State University.
3 To examine consequences of drug abuse among tertiary students in Ekiti State University.
4 To examine effects of drug abuse on individual students in Ekiti State University.
5 To examine the relationship between incidence of drug abuse and education among tertiary students in Ekiti State University.
6 To examine preventive measures against drug abuse among tertiary students in Ekiti State University.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1 What are the types of drugs used among tertiary students in Ekiti State University?
2 What are the causes of drug abuse among tertiary students in Ekiti State University?
3 What are the consequences of drug abuse among tertiary students in Ekiti State University?
4 What is effect of drug abuse on individual students in Ekiti State University?
5 What is the relationship between incidence of drug abuse and education among tertiary students in Ekiti State University?
6 What are the preventive measures against drug abuse among tertiary students in Ekiti State University?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
H0: There are is no significant effect of drug abuse on individual students in Ekiti State University.
H1: There is a significant effect of drug abuse on individual students in Ekiti State University.
H0: There is no significant relationship between incidence of drug abuse and education among tertiary students in Ekiti State University.
H1: There is a significant relationship between incidence of drug abuse and education among tertiary students in Ekiti State University.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study will be of profound benefits to because the Ministry of Education may use the study findings to find out ways of preventing drug abuse through public enlightened campaigns in schools, promotion of awareness on the dangers of drugs and how they affect an individual, the family and the society at large. The government may put in modalities of strengthening the guidance and counseling department in schools through taking the teachers for service teacher training courses. The findings may also be used to advocate that campaigns against substance use should be incorporated in schools with special focus on the adverse consequences of the substance use. Ultimately, the society will benefit from the findings of this study in creating a drug free society for social, economic and political development in line with sustainable development goals. This study would also be of immense benefit to students and scholars who are interested in developing further studies on the subject matter.
1.7 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The study is restricted to statistical analysis of incidence of drug abuse amongst tertiary students, a case study of Ekiti State University.
LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
Financial constraint: Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview)
Time constraint: The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.8 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
Drug: Refers to any chemical substance which when taken into the body that can affect one or more of the body’s functions.
Drug abuse: Refers to excessive illegal drug use and/ or legal drug use without a doctor’s prescription.
Drug control: This is a national and international agreement governing and restricting production, movement and use of a drug to medical and scientific needs in the interest of public health and for the prevention of drug abuse. This is aimed to optimize the risk-benefit ratio.
Youth: Include young adults in their twentieth (20 – 29) years old as well as adolescents in their tens (10 – 19) years. Youth is anybody in the period between early childhood and old age. It is a period of risk and vulnerability, it is a time of experimentation, exploration, curiosity, a search for identity and risk taking, such risk taking can include the use of alcohol, tobacco and other drugs. It is thins time that young people seek to achieve independence from their parents and to become established as adults. It is a period of changes in the body hormonal, physical, emotional and behavioral changes that make the individuals vulnerable to so many influences.