1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Emanating from the language of the economists, the term “wastage” is adopted within the field of education to explain different aspects of failure of an educational system to achieve its goals. Education is the key to alter and progress; therefore, Nigerian government has embraced this sector as one of the pillars for poverty reduction and benefits of. Yearly, universities are allot various financial and non-financial resources to execute their basic functions of teaching, learning and research, but with the speedy expansion of the academic system, increasing demand for more school buildings, more qualified and capable teachers, non-academic staff and educational facilities for proper teaching and learning becomes unavoidable. Hence, the provision of these resources would further increase the cost of university education. Nigeria is one of the countries where opportunities for human development have been neglected, and reasons for this changes have been embedded to political instability, economic mismanagement, widespread recession, rising interest rates and level of indebtedness, Babalola (2013). The squabble against public subsidy in university education was very tough; university education should acquire the highest investment priority respectively which must not be scraped away by high wastage rate. Wastages according to Adamu (2010); Samuel (2009); and Oyetakin (2011), is not beneficial and uneconomical utilization of time and resources. The impotence of a student to acquire one’s school certificate at the normal time for any reason, whatsoever is known as wastage. On the other hand, wastage means the input, time, energy disbursed in doing things but with no encouraging outcomes or results. Educational wastages mean premature withdrawal of child or students from school at any level before fulfilment of the assigned courses. This signifies that within an academic year, some student’s dropout of schools for different reasons. Based on the Education Sector Analysis, withdrawal/completion level is one out of the five pointers with which the academic system tries to actualize the philosophy of Nigerian Education masses (Federal Government of Nigeria, 2009). Pupils who repeat the same class while their mates moves to higher level in the next academic year and those who prematurely withdraw from higher institution before completion are seen as wastage. This wastage affects the internal effectiveness of the education system. It is a stumbling block to the realization of the nation’s aims and objectives of university education. Akangbou (2011) pointed out that the issue of high repetition is seen in many third world countries and is an indicator of ineffectiveness of the university educational system. He also asserts that repeating a level increases private and public cost of education carried by parents and the states and also leads to large classes with attendant problems of assessment and supervision of students, more facilities needed, training and recruiting more teachers and provision of additional instructive materials. Repetition of classes may affect the students and parents negatively, thus, the development of every child must be directed towards the ability of the child-bearing in mind the needs of the society. Abilities and capabilities of students are not the same in every course; hence, lecturers must ensure to develop such student according to his/her abilities and capabilities which may drastically minimize repetition and its associated frustration that might eventually result to dropout of students from the university system. The trend of dropout, repetition and failure, although noticeable all over Nigeria has become a syndrome in certain states of the country. Akindele (2012) pointed that the analysis of efficiency in education is necessary in endeavour an optimal use of the inadequate resources allotted to education in order to overcome or reduce wastage. The additional number of years spent by the repeaters in the process of repeating classes is also viewed as wastages. One vital problem facing the university education system in Nigeria is that the overall number of students admitted for a particular academic session does not graduate from at the specified period. Hence the study examines the impact of cost of educational wastage on students’ performance (a case study of university of Jos).
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Education financing in Nigeria encompasses all financial outlays by the federal government, the private sector (including NGOs), households, communities and other stakeholders. These finances cover personal emoluments, operations and maintenance expenses as well as development expenditure. The Systems Theory of Management propounded by Van Bertalanffy (2013) is use to justify efficiency in operations of an organization as a system. The theory views an organization as a social system consisting of individuals who cooperate within a formal framework, drawing resources, people, finance from their environment and putting back into that environment. Despite the amount of resources allocated to the education sector by all these stakeholders, students' academic performance has been declining in Jos North Local government. Hence one is prompted to raise a question of what would be the relationship between Cost of educational wastage and students' performance in Nigeria and university of Jos in particular. Therefore, relationship between the cost of educational wastage and students’ academic performance in Nigerian tertiary institutions has not been established.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The major purpose of this study is to examine the study on the impact of cost of educational wastage on student’s performance. Other general objectives of the study are:
1. To examine the cost of education in University of Jos.
2. To examine the cost of educational wastage in University of Jos.
3. To examine the impact of cost of educational wastage on students performance.
4. To examine the level of students performance in University of Jos.
5. To examine the relationship between cost of educational wastage on students performance.
6. To examine measures schools can adopt to reduce the cost of educational wastage on students performance in Nigeria.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. What is the cost of education in University of Jos?
2 What is the cost of educational wastage in University of Jos?
3. What is the impact of cost of educational wastage on student’s performance?
4. What is the level of student’s performance in University of Jos?
5. What is the relationship between the cost of educational wastage on student’s performance?
6. What are the measures schools can adopt to reduce the cost of educational wastage on students performance in Nigeria?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
H0: There is no impact of cost of educational wastage on student’s performance
H1: There is a significant impact of cost of educational wastage on student’s performance
H0: There is no significant relationship between the cost of educational wastage on student’s performance.
H1: There is a significant relationship between the cost of educational wastage on student’s performance.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Addressing the issue of educational wastage would reduce youth unemployment hence avoiding many social-economic evils that are caused by unemployment. The education sector would use the findings to formulate education policies. Parents and the community would also use these findings in counselling the students towards quality performance and retention and completion of education and underscore the benefit of graduating at all levels of education. Findings of the study would also offer lessons to all key stake holders in education, for instance, it would shed light on the factors influencing educational wastage as well as strategies that need to be taken to minimize and eventually eradicate educational wastage. Last but not least the findings would add to the existing literature of educational wastage and help educational institutions to function towards provision of quality education and increased enrolment, survival, retention and completion rates.
1.7SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study is based on the impact of cost of educational wastage on student’s performance in university of Jos.
1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Performance: Performance according to Microsoft Encarta dictionary, (2009) refers to working effectiveness: the way in which somebody does a job, judged by its effectiveness. Performance also means, “accomplishment of something: the act of carrying out or accomplishing something such as a task or action”.
Student: A formal learner or one who studies at school in order to learn and acquire skills that will help them grow into responsible being in the society.
Educational Wastage: Refers to premature withdrawal of students from schools at any stage before completion of their education course. A measure of internal efficiency which manifests itself through drop outs and repetition.
Wastage: The term “wastage” from the economists’ language is used within the field of Education to describe various aspects of failure of an educational system to achieve its objectives.
Drop Out: Is premature termination of an educational cycle. A term is used to describe individuals who leave an activity, a course, a programme, or a school, before completing its requirements.