1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Organizations are established basically to achieve the goals of profit maximization or provision of quality services to enhance the living standard of the people in any society. To achieve these goals, competent employees are required. In addition, availability of quality management in terms of skills, education and experience that abhors gender discrimination of any kind determines organizational effectiveness. The implication of this position is that weak management irrespective of gender breeds an inefficient organization in particular and the society in general [Okoh et. al; 2008]. In this regard, the universities in Nigeria are established to provide high-level manpower need of organizations whether in the public or private sector of the economy. Like any other sector, the ability of the Nigerian universities to achieve their goals and objectives is a function of its ability to attract competent workforce irrespective whether they are males or females. Workers in an organization, irrespective of their gender, are classified into management/senior employees and others. The management/senior employees are responsible for the overall administration of the organization for enhanced performance. These categories of employees provide the direction through effective leadership to achieve the overall goals of the organization; and this is where discrimination does set in and mostly pronounced in Nigerian universities [Ekore, 2008]. Nigeria, like alternative countries in Africa, has nearly equal range of males and females that form up the entire population. In most scenario, women are continuously been discriminated within the space of leadership in organizations, significantly within the Nigerian universities, if increased performance is to be achieved. In recent times, as businesses begin to go global and with high intensity of labor mobility, employees are bound to operate in an organization with diverse workforce in terms of age, gender, ethnicity, religion etc. hence, it is important that these differences in the work environment are been managed properly in a way void of discrimination in other that all employees will be satisfied. Managing diversity is very essential for any organization, especially in this era of globalization. Managing diversity is required to close the unfair discrimination and thus enable employees to compete on equal basis. Diversity in the workplace has overtime cumulated into various forms of discrimination. According to the Australian Human Rights Commission (2014), workplace discrimination is the treatment of certain workers in a less favorable manner than another group because of their background or certain personal characteristics. Omoh, Owusu and Mendah (2015) noted that geographical point discrimination may be a phrase that the majority practitioners condemn and don't need to listen to. It refers to discrimination in hiring, promoting, job assignment, termination and compensation. It refers to discrimination in hiring, promoting, job assignment, termination and compensation. Discrimination happens once a leader treats an employee less important than others. According to Hasan and Ali (2014); and Fatima and Omar (2014), the various dimensions of geographical point discrimination are; gender, discrimination, faith discrimination and ethnic discrimination. Discrimination in workplace could be direct or indirect. It is direct discrimination when an employer treats an employee less favourably than someone else. But indirect discrimination happens when a working conditions or rule disadvantages one group of people more than another. SEEDA (2006) rumoured that racial or ethnic discrimination within the geographical point contains a impact each at individual and organizational levels. Hemphill and Haines (2010) identified six varieties of discrimination that are; disabilities discrimination, sexual harassment, ethnic discrimination, race discrimination, sexual orientation discrimination and gender discrimination. Although, most work have been done in the developed countries on workplace discrimination. These have but been a lack of empirical studies on the link of geographical point discrimination and worker performance because it relates to the Nigerian surroundings. It is this gap that has informed this study. This study thus tends to fill this gap by investigating into the impact of discrimination on the Nigerian Universities.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The problems within the work place arising from discrimination are clearly evident to everyone. The ways in which to eliminate discrimination withinthe workplace haven't nonetheless been totally known. Particularly within the universities in developing nation like federal Republic of Nigeria, there has been great discrimination activities which appear in the form of hiring only men even in roles of managerial positions, employing based on the tribal card, a situation in which majority of organizations in a particular state possess a strong inclination to employ individual from the same state rather than more qualified individuals which they liken to trust and security. Stunted growth of employees in terms of position and pay, as management usually discriminate towards promotion based on perception and are more likely to put certain set of individual below their actual pay grade as a result of discrimination largely called ―reasons best known to them (Alpert, 2011; Omoh et. al., 2015). Where workplace discrimination is practiced, employees suffer retaliation for opposing them or for reporting violations to the authorities, this organizational vices is most common in our part of the world, that is, Africa and most especially Nigeria in particular. Discrimination results in and reinforces inequalities and could result in poor morale of employee, high turnover, poor commitment and subsequently result in negative impact on the organizational performance. The freedom of employee to develop their capabilities and to choose and pursue their professional and personal aspirations is restricted, skills and competence cannot be developed, rewards to figure are denied and a way of humiliation, frustration and quality takes over (Olsen, 2004). Employee performance grounds of discrimination can be seen when individuals feel they are mistreated because of their group membership, they often feel alienated and angry, which can result in negative work-related behaviours. Perceived discrimination is also related to more extreme work withdrawal behaviours, it is largely identified that discrimination turns the employees emotionally brittle, simple peace loving employees transform into paranoid and suspicious, fearful and angry individuals. Elimination of gender discrimination is crucial for the satisfaction and motivation, commitment and enthusiasm and less stress of the employees (Channar et. al., 2011). Another noteworthy issue is ethnic and cultural variations as some people harbour unfair prejudices against folks of various colours, cultures, ethnicity or faith than their own. Also is the existence of gender discrimination which represents one the oldest and most common diversity issues in the workplace is the "men vs. women" topic (Patterson, 2015). Low employee performance negatively affects both individual and the entire organization.
1.3AIMS OF THE STUDY
The major purpose of this study is to examine impact of discrimination on Nigerian Universities. Other general objectives of the study are:
1. To examine gender discrimination and quality of output in Nigerian universities.
2. To examine Discrimination at work and how it affects work performance.
3. To examine factors responsible for discrimination in Nigerian universities.
4. To examine the effects of discrimination on Nigerian universities.
5. To determine the relationship between discrimination and Nigerian Universities.
6. To make some recommendations on how to correct the discrimination imbalance in management in the Nigerian universities.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. What is gender discrimination and quality of output in Nigerian universities?
2. What is Discrimination at work and how does it affects work performance?
3. What are the factors responsible for discrimination in Nigerian universities?
4. What are the effects of discrimination on Nigerian universities?
5. What is the relationship between discrimination and Nigerian Universities?
6. What are the recommendations on how to correct the discrimination imbalance in management in the Nigerian universities?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
H0: There is no impact of discrimination on Nigerian universities.
H1: There is a significant impact of discrimination on Nigerian universities.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study findings will provide pertinent information on how discrimination factors affect the workplace. The study findings will be of interest to the government of Nigeria, shareholders, as well as scholars and academicians. The study will benefit scholars and academicians who would wish to undertake further studies and increase the body of knowledge on the impacts of discrimination on the Nigerian Universities. It will increase knowledge on the relationship between discrimination and the workplace. Corporate bodies will benefit from the study by getting information on how discrimination affects the performance of an organization, thus they will provide data and information on better strategies that can be used to deal with discrimination, improve efficiency and growth and workforce in an organization.
1.7SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study is based on impact of discrimination on Nigerian universities: case study of Bowen University.
1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Impact: Measure of the tangible and intangible effects (consequences) of one thing's or entity's action or influence upon another.
Discrimination: Bias or prejudice resulting in denial of opportunity, or unfair treatment regarding selection, promotion, or transfer. Discrimination is practiced commonly on the grounds of age, disability, ethnicity, origin, political belief, race, religion and sex, etc. factors which are irrelevant to a person's competence or suitability.
UNIVERSITY:An institution of learning of the highest level, having a college ofliberal arts and a program of graduate studies together with severalprofessional schools, as of theology, law, medicine, and engineering,and authorized to confer both undergraduate and graduate degrees.