Learning can be considered as change that is permanent in nature because change is brought into students by a teacher through techniques like developing specific skills, changing some attitudes, or understanding specific scientific law operating behind a learning environment
Teaching can be defined as engagement with learners to enable their understanding and application of knowledge, concepts and processes. To teach is to engage students in learning; thus teaching consists of getting students involved in the active construction of knowledge
Planning in the context of education entails the process of setting objectives and determining the means to achieving the objectives. It entails deciding in advance what to be taught how, to teach, when to teach, who is being taught, and the evaluation of the recipient. Planning is the beginning of the teaching and learning process, before a teacher goes to the class to deliver any lesson, he plans such lessons while education administrators make policies and plan the curriculum for the school to implement them.Through planning for a lesson makes the teaching-learning encounter a valuable and productive impact. Conversely, no planning leads to a wasteful and unproductive lesson. The motion pervades education at all levels and in all subject areas (Egbe, 2013).There appears to be a widespread agreement not only on the value of planning but also on the substance and format of plans. The plan that enlisted universal acceptance contains the purposes, experiences, and their organization and evaluationIf a lesson is to be effective, the teacher needs to make decisions in these areas before the lesson. He needs to identify the objectives he intends to develop, the knowledge or subject matter, objectives as well as the process and effective objectives. He needs to select and organize students learning experiences that will develop the objective. He needs to make decisions about activities to be used, materials to be gathered, the amount of time to be spent, and other matters. Finally, he needs to decide what method or instrument to use to determine whether the teaching accomplished the objective of the lesson
Nigeria poverty to economic and natural resources reinforced the country to invest in the education sector. Therefore, Nigeria governments through the past decades devoted huge efforts to invest financially and humanly in this sector. Hence, these investments in the education in a country suffering from limited economy made the use of human resources highly necessary. It is noteworthy that the interest in planning and teaching methods is increasing day by day, and there is not generalization of a teaching method, rather there are many educational schools dealing with a wide variety of these methods that can be classified based on their effectiveness, their effect, and advantages and disadvantages (Alsharari, 2017). On the other hand, the problems of planning in teaching are increasing because of the people frequent needs to learn, learning and explosion of knowledge, progress in scientific fields, and continuous development of information technology (Al Absi, 2011). Generally, teaching in schools has received great attention in Nigeria, especially in the University stage that has been given special attention because it is the tertiary stage and derives its philosophy (Ahmad, 2011). Moreover, the tertiary stage is linked to a series of students' growth stages: physical growth, mental growth, and emotional growth. All these factors and others make the school’s administration has more burden in the preparation of secondary school students in terms of social, economic, political and scientific concepts that should be supportive to the next educational stages in universities (Al-Zboon & Hasan, 2014). Although Nigeria education witnessed an obvious development at all levels, it still suffers from some problems that need to be continually overseen and controlled (Khasawneh, 2011). As a complicated and interferential process, to enhance and develop education thorough and an improved teaching and learning process, every component of the process needs to be improved and carefully integrated with the other components in the educational series. Teaching is considered as one of the main components of the educational process, and all segments must be built and developed in an integrated manner (Al-Mohsen & Al-Kilani, 2014). Teaching planning in schools is the basic segment of the process, and if it is not given sufficient interest, the educational process as a whole will not be successful. For a few previous years, several studies (Al-Mohsen & Kilani, 2014; Al-Zboon & Hasan, 2014; Khasawneh, 2011) have been urging the problems of teaching dilemma in school's stages, but few of them have been focused on the teaching planning process.
Therefore it is important that effective planning is implemented in the teaching and learning process in our tertiary institutions. When planning is adequately implemented in the learning process it does not only improves the performance of the staff or lecturers it also improves the performance of students in higher institutions
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
To teach successfully, one must plan successfully. Successful planning goes along with the successful use of lesson plan and lesson planning in teaching in order to facilitate a positive learning experience for all students. No lesson is accepted to be impactive without a well planing. Effective planning is very important to the teacher because it serves as a guide for him or her to implement impactive teaching and learning. It enables the teacher to think clearly and specifically about the type of learning he or she wishes to occur in a particular lesson. It also enables the teacher to think about the structure and content of the lesson. This includes, most importantly how long to devote to each activity. Kyriacou (2011) is of the view that effective planning considerably reduces how much thinking a teacher will have to do during lesson. Above all, effective planning enables the teacher to prepare ahead on how to disseminate his or her ideas in a logical manner. It is also important to realize that the best planned lesson is worthless if suitable and interesting lesson planning are not in evidence.
Effective planning are the day to day activities which a teacher has to design for his or her lesson. Skills, according to Kyriacou (2011) are seen as discrete and coherent activities by teachers which foster pupils‟ learning. This statement is in agreement with Wragg (2011) who sees effective planning as strategies that is used by teachers to facilitate pupils‟ learning. Lesson planning are a cognitive skills based on knowledge about how to conduct a lesson and knowledge about the content to be taught (Day, 2011). This is in line with the view that effective planning draw upon the teachers‟ knowledge about impactive teaching (Campbell, Kyriacides, Muijs and Robinson, 2011). A thorough knowledge and mastery of variety of lesson planning would help the teacher to know which skill or skills to employ in teaching in order to create and sustain the students‟ interest to enhance positive teaching and learning. Dhand (2011) stresses that no single one delivery skill seems to work. Therefore, a teacher needs to have the knowledge of a variety of planning he can choose from in the teaching-learning process so as to avoid monotony and boredom. There are obvious observations from researchers such as Day (2011) and Wragg (2011) that poor planning are responsible for poor teaching and learning. Lack of experience of some teachers has made teaching become teacher-centred thereby leading to poor academic performance of students in Senior Secondary Schools. It is therefore the task of this study to investigate the problem involved in poor lesson plan and lesson planning in Senior Secondary Schools. In the light of this, this study is designed to assess the impacts of lesson planning teaching and learning process.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The purpose of this study is to examine Impact of Effective Planning in Teaching and Learning in Federal University Oye Ekiti. Other specific objectives include:
1 To examine the benefits of effective planning in teaching and learning process
2 To examine the impact of effective planning on academic performance of students in federal university Oye Ekiti
3 to examine the importance of effective planning in teaching and learning process
4 To outline the problems that militate against effective planning in federal university Oye Ekiti
5 To recommend ways of improving teaching and learning through effective planning in federal university Oye Ekiti
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1 What are the benefits of effective planning in teaching and learning process?
2 what is the impact of effective planning on academic performance of students in federal university Oye Ekiti?
3 What is the importance of effective planning in teaching and learning process?
4 what are the problems that militate against effective planning in federal university Oye Ekiti?
5 what are the ways of improving teaching and learning through effective planning in federal university Oye Ekiti
1.5 HYPOTHESIS OF THE STUDY
HO: there is no significant impact of effective planning on academic performance of students in federal university Oye Ekiti
H1: there is a significant impact of effective planning on academic performance of students in federal university Oye Ekiti
HO: There is no significant relationship between effective planning and academic performance of students in federal university Oye Ekiti
H1: There is a significant relationship between effective planning and academic performance of students in federal university Oye Ekiti
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study will be useful to management, staff and students of in federal university Oye Ekiti. Especially as they utilize the findings of this study as a basis for the lesson, planning, administrative planning, and general planning of school management. The study will be a good reference material for students, scholars, and individuals undertaking similar research. It can be used as a springboard to undertake their research
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study would cover the impact of effective planning in teaching and learning in federal university oye ekiti
1.8 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
The Researcher is likely to encounter certain problems in the course of conducting the research work, some of which may be
Financial Constraint: A good and successful research project will involve various activities and processes, it will require sufficient finances. However, due to the researcher's limited financial means, this research project may run into financial difficulties.
Time Constraint: The institution has set a time restriction for the research work; nevertheless, this time limit may not be sufficient for the research job to be completed, limiting the breadth of the research.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
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