1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Repetition is a condition in which a student attends the same courses or classes that he or she has taken before, for a variety of reasons. According to Derbe, Endale and Ashebir (2015), Repeating a grade necessitates the use of more resources than are provided to a student, hence limiting school intake capacity. This means that class repetition will have an impact on the number of students admitted to the school, increase the number of students in the class, and compel the need to raise the class's resources. Supporting this, Ige (2015) Students who repeat a class waste space, teaching time, textbooks, and other resources that could be used to help new students. This supports Ajayi (2017) He claimed that where instructional space such as classrooms, libraries, technical workshops, and laboratories is insufficient, a good level of academic performance may not be assured. Due to the increased class size, repetition depletes the limited resources available to schools and has a negative impact on the productivity of teaching employees. Commenting on the reason for repetition, Haidany (2013) Poverty, poor education, security issues, and regional traditions are all blamed for the repeat.
Gender, age, teaching faculty, students' schooling, father/guardian social economic status, residential area of students, medium of instruction in schools, tuition trend, daily study hour, and accommodation as hostels or day scholars are all factors that influence academic gain and learning performance. Many researchers conducted detailed studies about the factors contributing student performance at different study levels. Graetz (2015) claimed that "a student's scholastic achievement is strongly dependent on the social position of the student's parents/guardians in society". Considine and Zappala (2012) It has been observed that a parent's money or social position has a positive impact on a student's test score in an examination. According to Minnesota (2017) “The academic achievement of graduate students determines higher education performance. The most important indications of a student's future achievement are the student's previous educational outcomes, which mean that the better the student's previous appearance, the better the student's academic performance in future endeavours.
Repetition as a response to low academic achievement is seen as wasteful, especially since the Federal Government of Nigeria is currently pursuing the Universal Basic Education (UBE) program in accordance with the declarations of the Jomtein Conference of 2010 and the Dakar Framework for Action on Education for All (EFA). World Bank (2016), Nduka (2016), Psacharopolous (2015) argue that class repetition is a measure of inefficiency in the educational system because it consumes scarce public resources and prevents more pupils from being educated. Class repetition is also a management issue in education since it can lead to enormous class numbers that are difficult to efficiently teach, assess, and supervise. In Nigeria, The percentages of repetition and other dropouts were reported to be 19.34 percent and 9.42 percent, respectively (Eboatu, 2014). Dominguez (2010) proposed that a small increase in the flow rate of students through the educational system would free up a lot of dollars for education and allow more students to enrol in schools in order to eliminate waste in the educational system. The Federal Government of Nigeria started the UBE program in September 2011 and implemented initiatives in line with the National Policy on Education (FGN 2013) to reduce school dropout rates and increase the quality and relevance of educational programs. Every Nigerian child is required to receive nine (9) years of continuous primary and junior secondary school education under the program. It also scrapped the qualifying entry examination for junior secondary schools and implemented an automatic promotion program for students who failed their exams. Though most instructors, parents, and even students feel that class repetition improves students' academic performance, this belief is not supported by any known empirical studies in Africa, let alone Nigeria. The International Institute for Educational Planning's Forum on Class Repetition (IIEP, 2011) bemoaned the lack of research on the topic and advocated for more attention to be paid to it, particularly in terms of its effectiveness in enhancing academic performance. The use of class repetition to improve academic performance is based on the Behaviourist and Cognitive principles of learning, which suggest that acquired knowledge or behaviour must be refined before any new information can be meaningfully absorbed (Mergel 2014). However, among educators, class repetition is a sensitive matter. While some say that class repetition is beneficial to students’ academic performance and emotional adjustment, others argue that it is not. (Chansky, 2015; Chase, 2018), Others believe it's a waste of time and money(Haddad, 2013; Kenny, 2015). At the other extreme, several studies on the psychological effects of class repetition suggest that it may be emotionally destructive and unpleasant. According to Yamamoto, (2010) Repeaters may develop a negative self-image, which reduces their ability to learn (Haddad, 2013). In light of the high failure rate, the high opportunity cost of class repetition, and the 2015 deadline for providing basic education to all students, most countries, including Nigeria, have adopted the mass promotion policy, which eliminates selective examinations such as the Common Entrance Examination into secondary schools (IIEP, 2011). Despite the fact that most schools follow the policy of mass promotion for all students, some school principals continue to repeat children at the request of parents/guardians or at the request of the school administration. These principals who encourage and practice class repetition believe that promoting failing pupils to the next higher level kills their motivation to study hard and perform. As a result of this predicament, some students will be able to repeat a failed class while others will be promoted on trial at the same institution. As a result, the focus of research is on repetition as a strategy for improving student performance in junior secondary school.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The practice of repeating failed students has long been used to address the problem of exam failure. Teachers, parents, and the majority of students believe it improves pupils' academic performance. This viewpoint, however, is unsupported by any known survey or study activity in Nigeria. It's a calculated guess that has to be thoroughly validated. The problem of this study was therefore to investigate repetition as a strategy for improving student performance in junior secondary school.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The objective of the study is identifying repetition as a strategy in improving the performance of students in junior secondary school. Other specific objective includes
1) To examine the perception of teachers towards class repetition in secondary schools.
2) To examine the negative impact of repetition on the academic performance of students in junior secondary school
3) To examine the positive impact on the academic performance of students in secondary schools
4) To examine other factors that influence academic performance of students in junior secondary schools
5) To recommend ways of improving academic performance through the strategy of class repetition.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1) What is the perception of teachers towards class repetition in secondary schools?
2) What is the negative impact of repetition on the academic performance of students in junior secondary school?
3) What is the positive impact on the academic performance of students in secondary schools?
4) What are other factors that influence academic performance of students in junior secondary schools?
5) What are the ways of improving academic performance through the strategy of class repetition?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
HO1: Repetition has no significance impact on improving academic performance of junior secondary school students
HA: Repetition has a significance impact on improving academic performance of junior secondary school students
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
This study has great significance. First of all, the study findings will provide knowledge and information on Repetition as a Strategy in Improving the Performance of Student in Junior Secondary School. It will also provide knowledge and guidelines that may be of help to policymakers. The research is of importance to planners, implementers and recipients of the curriculum to the effect that it could enhance students’ academic performance in various academic disciplines.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of this study is on Repetition as a Strategy in Improving the Performance of Student in Junior Secondary School.
1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Academic performance: Academic achievement or academic performance is the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has attained their short or long-term educational goals. Completion of educational benchmarks such as secondary school diplomas and bachelor's degrees represent academic achievement
Junior secondary school: Junior Secondary is a phase of education in state secondary schools for Years 7, 8 and 9, which helps to ensure the bridge between primary and secondary school is safe, strong and consistent for all students.
Junior Secondary will focus on age-appropriate education, and support for students' wellbeing and transitions.
Six principles have been developed to underpin Junior Secondary. Under six guiding principles, Junior Secondary will provide challenging educational offerings that engage young adolescents, while giving them a sense of belonging and support through the changes they face.
REPETITION: Repetition is simply the act of performing an action (or actions) multiple times.
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