The effect of television on the audience especially in children have seen the subject of a great deal of research and have for need out to be a matter of deep concern ever since the shift expansion of television in the 1950s. new intervention and innovations such as cable networks, the internet shop screens, in recent times, have further complicated the issue because children have at their disposal all sort of movies and musical programmes to select from at will.
A general motion strongly held by observers and analyze alike shows clearly that despite the medium tremendous impact on education, information and entertainment, the viewers most times run the risk of being transformed into a violent generation thereby producing sex maniacs and monsters who generally assume a wrapped standard of conduct, rape and use of foul languages including notorious western habits were pat of the social vices that have formed the lives of these children as a result of indiscriminate television viewing. It was noted that “Children have the capacity to give themselves over completely to the world created by the pictorial media. Such intense involvement often leads to strong emotional responses.
In times past, experiments have been carried out aimed at observing and measuring behaviors of the audience after watching a programme. In 1974, some experts were able, through their laboratory experiments to show that their exists a positive causal relationship between watching violent portrays on television and levels of aggressiveness in individuals viewers.
A look at all these researcher, students and experiment would clearly reveal that the scholar are basically interested in looking at television as a positive contributor to the socialization of the children in the audience
STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS
Considering that a lot of research has been done on the effect of television on children, these researchers have mostly dwelt on the negative effect of television viewing and have drawn the inference that television is a negative contributor to the socialization of children.
This study is basically interested in highlighting the ways in which television viewing can aid and enhance the process of socialization of children in our society. This of course does not totally over rule the fact that the medium does not in some ways or cases actually contribute to socialization.
The problems therefore is to investigate whether television viewing after all contributes positively to the socialization of children.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Basically, the major question to be answered here is whether television is really harmful to its viewers especially children and to establish the level if any of its contribution to the process of socialization in children. In other parts of the world, cumulative studies have shown television as an important influence, both positively and negatively to the socialization of children. This case of Nigeria will be investigated different people and institution may already have an established belief as to the level of contribution of the medium but this study will go through investigation to reveal whether negative contributions are more than positive contributions.
The result of the study is expected to act as a guide for parents and guidance to control what their children watch especially with recent introduction of cable networks and satellites systems, ensuring that only that which will bring about positive reactions and behaviors from them is viewed.
Through this, the children can concentrate watching only those programmes that will enable them turn out to be properly socialized beings, leaving off those that tend to bring out the word in them and do not in any way attest to the reality or true state of affairs in the real world. Television programmes planners can through this, consider the need of children while programming.
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The objectives of this study is multi-facted. The study is first of all aimed at establishing the fact that the vertical theory of mass communication which suggests that the audience is a “Mass of disconnected individual” looked up to the media with instance powerful effect, has become obsolete in the world of communication.
Children are not, by any stretch of imagination sponges indiscriminately soaking up any things and every thing they see or hear. This study will assess the situation that television broadcasting and media values generally are under going a steady self examination and revision towards a more responsible definition of what interests the children on our society. This study will show that the main effect of television is one of the socialization that aids in cultivation of stability and tranquility. This, of course is not with other major cultural institutions and agents of socialization. But the television gives credibility and potency to other medium of communication and can match through its ability to reach both literate and illiterate audience and its unique blend of auditory and visual impact. It is expected that at the end, this study would enable and encourage planners to consider the structure of their programmes and organize to suit and enhance the process of socialization of children.
Finally, the work will enable the national Broadcasting Commission (NBC) to properly regulate and check certain programmes that may be harmful to children and also call to book the television establishment that would violate the standards set by the commission.
It is with earnest viewers that when this is completed, television viewers in Enugu and indeed Nigeria, especially children will tap the benefit inherent in this wonderful and dynamic medium.
The study shall be guided by the following research questions
1 Does television viewing contributes to socialization of children
2. Does television viewing contribute positively to socialization of children
3. Does television viewing contribute negatively to socialization of children
4. What is the level of contribution television programme viewing has to the socialization of children
5. Do children belie what they see on television.
The following research hypothesis shall be put for further testing., they shall also help in collection of data and construction of te questionnaires
Hi: Television viewing contributes to the socialization of children
Ho: Television viewing does not contribute to the socialization of children
DEFINITION OF TERMS TELEVISION
CONCEPTUAL: The medium used in transmitting a view of events, films etc,
OPERATIONAL: The medium through which message are brought to audience as a form of entertainment education and information.
CONCEPTUAL: Definite joining with others in giving help to something or some one.
OPERATIONAL: Having a share in something without giving room for doubt.
CONCEPTUAL: Peaceful co-existence among individuals for the norms and values of the society.
OPERATIONAL: Living in groups and making a definite efforts to fit into that group by observing the laws that govern the inhabitants.
CHILDREN CONCEPTUAL: Unborn or newly born human beings boy or girl
OPERATONAL: Young individual between the ages of 1day to 17 years
SCOPE AND LIMITATION
The problems being investigated in the study is such that touches on the lives of children all over the world and as a result, required that the cope takes a national or international nature. However as a result of the existing constraints, this study shall be limited to Enugu state Nigeria. In Enugu, the population is found to be too large, so the size shall be reduced to the tans-ekulu and Ogui new layout areas of Enugu state.
The former represents low density area and reflect people or samples in the high economic and social class while the latter represents high density area and reflects sample from low and average economic and social class. The sample has limited demographic and geographic area and characteristic and should not be adequate to generalize the whole country. Suing a combination of experimental and observational methods could lead to a more scientific result, but as a result of the limited period of this study, this could frustrate long time observation of tendencies of these children to be used in the study. Neither can there be a way of ensuring the previous knowledge of television programmes of these children placed in a controlled environment.
Financial constraints distribution and collection of the measuring instrument are other factors that could limit the smooth process of this study. So that the possibility of getting an accurate result from such an experiment is almost impossible
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