1.1 Background of the Study
Universal Basic Education was born out of many programmes which had tried to uplift Educational system in Nigeria like pre compulsory primary school education of six year which later collapsed due to long period of military regime in Nigeria (N.P.E. 2004, 4th edition).
As a result during the implementation phase of the Universal Basic Education Programme (UBEP) in year 2000, it was realized that some efforts was needed to improve the quality of basic education to ensure that a solid foundation was laid at that level of education. This was predicted on the fact that solid basic education would make learning at higher level easier and more meaningful.
Consequently, steps were taken to increase access to basic education, ensure the provision of equal opportunity for all learners and improve quality of education (UBEC Journal 2004). These steps included:-
(i) Construction of additional infrastructure in existing school.
(ii) Rehabilitation of dilapidated infrastructure.
(iii) Creation of new schools in areas that needed their.
(iv) Supply of supplementary reading materials.
(v) Training of more teachers through the Pivotal Teacher Training Programme (PTTO).
Through these steps, the targeted improvement in the learning environment were taken a need was felt to focus attention on the teachers factors, not necessarily the quantitative aspect which had been addressed by the Pivotal Teachers Training Programme and other initiatives but the quality aspect which hitherto had remained unattended to Teachers all over the world are recognized as a critical factor in delivery of quality education. Therefore level of teachers quality has to be made in order to ensure successful basic education in Nigeria.
Following the backdrop in implementation of this programme, Universal Basic Education commission was established during the Administration of Olusegun Obasanjo by an act 2004 by Act of National Assembly the compulsory free, Universal Basic Education Act 2004 to includes six years of primary school and three additional years of Junior Secondary School.
According to the act, it provides compulsory, free universal basic education for all children of primary school and junior secondary school age in Federal Republic of Nigeria.
It also stipulates penalties for any parent who fails to comply with the provisions.
But with all these stipulations and act embarking this programme much had not be achieved in providing this basic education for all citizenly (UBEC Journal, 2004).
Therefore as a result of that I was prompted to pick this as a research topic so that I will contribute in solving the problems facing universal basic Education in Nigeria by bring a lasting solution to it.
“Sustaniable strategies for effective implementation of Universal Basic Education Programme in Nigeria.
To achieve these, Universal Basic Education Programme and its objectives must be critical at the foundation so that good foundation will be laid for life-long learning process.
The Universal Basic Education programme and its lofty objectives would of course be sabotaged if left in the hands of under-qualified, badly trained, ill equipped and unmotivated teachers.
As a result, this research work will concentrates of finding out the major problem which endangers proper implementation of Universal Basic Education which includes how inadequate infrastructure and facilities/finding, curriculum content and development and inadequate manpower effect its full implementation and finding a lasting solutions to it.
1.1 (i) Inadequacy of infrastructure and poor funding; this has been one among many factor which hinders proper implementation of this programme since we know that teaching and learning process cannot take place where there is no infrastructural material like structures (building) where the actual learning process takes places, and instructional materials. Therefore in this case teacher cannot use them head or sit under mango trees to teach therefore effort will be made through this work to enlighten public and all stakeholders to support in providing these material which are lacking in our schools.
1.1 (ii) Curriculum content of the basic education
Curriculum should be made in a way that it will reflect the purposed/aim and target of the programme so that adequate skills will taught to student during this nine (9) years uninterrupted basic education which will give them adequate skill needed.
1.1 (iii) Inadequate in area of manpower, in this area, teachers factors contributes a lot in full implementation of the programme.
This is because we cannot give what we don’t have, therefore it is of great benefits if we ensure that the teachers who are involve in this programme will be highly educated and acquits themselves in all methods of teaching, they should have in their hand all about lesson plan which includes introduction, general sequence/orderliness of presentation, questioning, pupils’ participation, use of chalkboard, time, allocation, evaluation of learning outcomes, including lesson summary and home work/assignment. Another factor in manpower is issue of teachers remuneration because even when the teacher knows all it takes to teach but he or she receives almost nothing at the end of the month, he or she cannot give all his best which will create inadequacy in manpower therefore the issue reward should be encouraged for devoted work.
When all these factors are achieved after nine years of continuous education, every child that passes through the programme should acquire appropriate levels of literacy, innumeracy, common manipulative and life skill and employable, useful to himself and the society.