1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Science as a field of study has made it possible for man to know more about the universe. The effective teaching of science subjects can lead to the attainment of scientific and technological greatness (Adesoji & Olatunbosun, 2008). Science teachers are very crucial in the translation of science educational objectives into practice. Science education provides a more effective preparation for citizenship and in order to achieve this, qualified and experienced science teachers who are well aware of global demands of science teaching with a view to engendering scientific and technological values in learners are required. There has been much concern about the apparent fall in the standard of science education at the secondary school level in Nigeria. For instance, Madu (2012) and Okebukola (2015) working separately, have lamented on the decline in the standard of science teaching in Nigeria. Nwagbo (2014) identified a number of factors obstructing students’ understanding and achievement in the science subjects and among these factors was the use of inappropriate, non-effective teaching methodology. Abimbola (2013) stated that the performance level for individual science subjects did not show any significant rise for a twenty-year period between 1991 and 2011, except occasionally for chemistry and physics. The persistent poor performance in science subjects at School Certificate level has given rise to an assumption that most science teachers in secondary schools in Nigeria probably do not make use of varied forms of teaching strategies to be able to cope with some specific difficulties associated with the teaching and learning of science by both the teachers and the students respectively (Achor, 2010; Umoren & Ogong, 2012). Nwosu (2012) submitted that most science teachers do not possess the prerequisite knowledge needed for activity based learning and as a result, the most prevalent method of teaching has been the ‘talk and chalk’ (lecture) method. Ajaja (2013) identified the ‘method adopted for teaching and learning science’(p.1) as one of the factors contributing to this low interest in science and hence expressed the need for a search for alternative instructional strategies that could stimulate students’ interest and enhance their achievement. The use of various innovative teaching strategies is borne out of the fact that there are different topics to be taught and skills intended to be developed. Many innovative strategies have been developed by educators with a view to involving learners more in the teaching learning process. This is considered very important and there is the need get these strategies into the classrooms (Slavin, 2015; Leikin & Zaslavsky, 2010). For this to be done successfully there is need for teachers not only to be aware of these strategies, but also to learn how to use these strategies appropriately in the classroom. A teacher who is not aware of a variety of such strategies can neither attempt to use them in the first place nor use them appropriately.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Physics being a fundamental science course has found numerous applications in all other sciences and hence its principle constitutes the bedrock of development in the science and technology of nations. Achieving proficiency in physics is, therefore, a national concern. However, developing countries including Nigeria suffer from persistent power failure, insufficient food, inadequate medical care and portable water supply as well as un-conducive living and working environment that indicate the low level of scientific and technological development. The major aim of physics teaching and learning is to promote the understanding of the concepts being taught with a view to applying knowledge of such understanding to real life situations. Hence, will effective implementation of teaching and learning enhance the transfer of knowledge of students in what content they have learned to new contexts in physics? The problem of the present study is to investigate the strategies for effective implementation of teaching and learning of physics in senior secondary schools.
1.3AIMS OF THE STUDY
The major purpose of this study is to examine strategies for effective implementation of teaching and learning physics in senior schools. Other general objectives of the study are:
1. To examine the level to which science teachers utilise innovative teaching strategies in teaching physics in senior secondary schools.
2. To examine effects of teaching strategies on students’ transfer of knowledge in physics.
3. To examine the effect of implementation of teaching and learning physics on students’ achievement in senior secondary schools.
4. To examine the teachers’ and learners’ perception of Physics curriculum content.
5. To examine the relationship between effective implementation of teaching and learning and students academic performance in physics.
6. To examine the factors hindering effective implementation of teaching and learning physics in secondary schools.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
2. What is the level to which science teachers utilise innovative teaching strategies in teaching physics in senior secondary schools?
3. What are the effects of teaching strategies on students’ transfer of knowledge in physics?
4. What are the effects of implementation of teaching and learning physics on student’s achievement in senior secondary schools?
5. What are the teachers’ and learners’ perception of Physics curriculum content?
6. What is the relationship between effective implementation of teaching and learning and students academic performance in physics?
7. What are the factors hindering effective implementation of teaching and learning physics in secondary schools?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
H01: There is no significant effect of implementation of teaching and learning physics on students’ achievement in senior secondary schools.
H02: There is no significant relationship between effective implementation of teaching and learning and students academic performance in physics.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The result of this study will be of immense benefit to physics teachers, curriculum planners, Ministry of Education, teacher training institution and researchers and psychologists. The outcome of this study will expose physics teachers to more effective techniques of promoting learning, which help to minimize student’s low achievement in the subjects. It will make their teaching/learning activities successful. In a class where all these qualities exist, students will be active, inquisitive and will be able to transfer what they learnt in the classroom to real life situation Also, it will enable physics teachers to adjust their teaching pattern and recognize students’ ownership of ideas which will be negotiated in the classroom. This will enable the teachers to enjoy teaching as students achieve highly The findings will be of use to the curriculum planners, to plan physics curriculum in such a way that the contents will be filled with activities which teachers and students will do together. Curriculum planners would find the result of this study a relevant tool for curriculum reforms and improvement in line with the Nigerian curriculum 6-3-3-4 which recommends students centred pedagogical method that can assist in achieving the national educational goals which include, the acquisition of appropriate skills, mental, physical and social abilities and competence that will equip the individual to live in and contribute to the development of the society. The federal ministry of education and other researchers will through this study organize workshops, seminars and conferences for review of pedagogy in physics teaching to address the issue of integrating new ideas on teaching of basic science. It might help them in identifying the concept of learners’ cognitive style and teaches instructional style in educational programme planning that could be included in later review of physics curriculum. It will provide useful information to teachers training institutions. These institutions can enrich their method courses or develop new programme of instructions based on the findings of this study.
1.7SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study is based on strategies for effective implementation of teaching and learning physics in senior secondary schools: case study of Nasarawa L.G.A, Kano State
1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Implementation: Oxford advanced leaner’s dictionary refers to it as putting into effect a plan already mapped out. Obanya (2012) defines teaching and learning implementation as day to day activities which school management and class room teacher undertake in the pursuit of the objectives of any given curriculum. In this study it means process involved in translating educational plan intonation to bring about change in the learner function effectively in the society. In this regard, implementation is seen as both the means to an ends.
Learning: Measurable and relatively permanent change in behaviour through experience, instruction, or study. Knowledge or skill acquired by instruction or study.
Physics: The branch of science concerned with the nature and properties of matter and energy. The subject matter of physics includes mechanics, heat, light and other radiation, sound, electricity, magnetism, and the structure of atoms. The physical properties and phenomena of something.