1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
In Nigeria today, concern has been expressed by parents, lecturers, labour market and the entire society about the quality of graduates from Nigerian tertiary institutions. Several reasons have been suggested for the poor quality but perhaps, no consensus has been reached as to the effect of classroom interactions on the quality of our graduates. It is, however, no secret that most academic staff has compromised the teaching aspect of their primary responsibilities due in part to the proverbial “publish or perish” syndrome. Consequently, teaching in Nigerian tertiary institutions suffers and grades are awarded whether or not students are taught or guided to learn. This seeming lack of interest in what transpires in the classroom is a serious factor in the quality of graduates produced. Certain kind of monitoring is therefore necessary if higher education is to achieve its objectives. It is at this point, coupled with the way our higher educational institutions are operated that student evaluation becomes imperative. Student evaluation of instruction is one of the popular approaches of tertiary institutions evaluation. Other approaches include; classroom observation, peer evaluation, self-evaluation and so on. Student evaluation of instruction means that students as consumers of instruction are made to express their opinion and feelings concerning the effectiveness of the lecturer’s instructional process and activities during the semester and the extent to which they benefited from that process. Although student evaluation has been engrossed in controversy, it is often used to improve instruction thereby enhancing the professional growth of the academic staff and used as a measure to observe instructional performance of the lecturer from the student standpoint (Joshua, 1999). This controversial approach of management of academic staff has gained currency following the assumptions or conclusions of Remmers who is known to be the father of Evaluation:
(i) there is a warrant for ascribing validity to students’ rating, not merely as measures of students’ attitude toward instructor but also as what students actually learn of the content of the course; (ii) students’ judgments as criterion of effective teaching can no longer be waved aside as invalid and irrelevant;
(ii) Academic staff at all levels of educational ladder have no real choice as to whether they will be judged by those they teach, but the real choice any teacher has is whether he/she wants to use this knowledge in his/her teaching procedures;
(iii) As higher education is organized and operated, students are the only ones who observe and are in a position to judge the teachers’ teaching effectiveness; and
(iv) No research has been published evaluating the use of student opinion as one criterion of teachers’ teaching effectiveness (Remmers, 1927). Since then, the use of student-ratings as an index of teaching effectiveness has attracted several studies. As result of this, the study is on management of academic staff and students’ academic performance in tertiary institutions.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Most academic staff in Nigeria universities are unhappy, uninspired and unmotivated. Lope (2004) conducted research titled “improving the teaching profession through understanding educators self motivation”. The major findings of the study indicate reasons for not favouring the teaching profession which include low salary, lack of promotion opportunities, unsatisfactory leader behaviour, and variety of work load, student discipline problems, uncooperative colleagues and un-conducive working environment. According to the World Bank Report (2004), 23,000 qualified academic staffs are emigrating from Africa each year in search of better working conditions, and it is estimated by the report that 10,000 Nigerians are now employed in the United State Universities alone. Lack of good working condition and motivation mechanism has no doubt, translated into lecturer’s low morale which in turn translated into student’s poor academic performance. Hence, this study wants to find out the management of academic staff and students academic performance in tertiary institutions in Taraba State.
1.3AIMS OF THE STUDY
The major purpose of this study is to examine management of academic staff and student’s academic performance in tertiary institutions. Other general objectives of the study are:
1. To examine the level of management of academic staff in tertiary institutions.
2. To examine the indices that aid staff performance in tertiary institutions.
3. To examine the effects of management of academic staff and students academic performance in tertiary institutions.
4. To examine how the managers of tertiary institutions motivates academic staff for effective performance.
5. To examine the relationship between management of academic staff and students academic performance in tertiary institutions.
6. To suggest ways in which management of academic staff will aid in improving the academic performance of students in tertiary institutions
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. What is the level of management of academic staff in tertiary institutions?
2. What are the indices that aid staff performance in tertiary institutions?
3. What are the effects of management of academic staff and student’s academic performance in tertiary institutions?
4. How does the manager of tertiary institutions motivate academic staff for effective performance?
5. What is the relationship between management of academic staff and student’s academic performance in tertiary institutions?
6. What are the ways in which management of academic staff will aid in improving the academic performance of students in tertiary institutions?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
H0: There is no effect of management of academic staff and the academic performance of students in tertiary institutions.
H1: There is a significant effect of management of academic staff and the academic performance of students in tertiary institutions.
H0: There is no significant relationship between management of academic staff and the academic performance of students in tertiary institutions.
H1: There is a significant relationship between management of academic staff and the academic performance of students in tertiary institutions.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The findings of this study will be of tremendous use for tertiary institutions, Staff, students, educational administrators, Ministries of Education, researchers and the entire academic community. It will be useful to ministry of Education for adequate provision of infrastructure, books and social welfare packages of staff and students of tertiary institutions. The findings of this study will be particularly useful to the National Universities Commission (NUC) if incorporated in the minimum academic standard which will guide the principal officers of the institutions during recruitment, admission exercise and employment of qualified staff. It will also assist top management of the tertiary institutions to make amends and to close gaps where deficiencies occurred in the administration of the school.
1.7SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study is based on management of academic staff and student’s academic performance in tertiary institutions in Taraba state.
1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Management: Is the administration of an organization, whether it is a business, a not-for-profit organization, or government body. Management includes the activities of setting the strategy of an organization and coordinating the efforts of its employees (or of volunteers) to accomplish its objectives through the application of available resources, such as financial, natural, technological, and human resources.
Academic: Relating to schools, colleges, and universities, or connected with studying and thinking, not with practical skills.
Performance: The accomplishment of a given task measured against preset known standards of accuracy, completeness, cost, and speed. In a contract, performance is deemed to be the fulfilment of an obligation, in a manner that releases the performer from all liabilities under the contract.
Tertiary institutions: Education beyond high school especially that of training obtained at colleges, universities, polytechnics, etc.