CHAPTER ONE 1.1 Background to the study
The study grew out of observation on the effect of field trip in biology students’ achievement in secondary schools in Khana Local Government Area. The purpose of Field Trip enhances the curriculum. Field trips are rich in educational possibilities as students learn from actual hands-on experience, rather than by simply reading or hearing about something. A field trip is a visit to a place outside the regular classroom which is designed to achieve certain objectives, Field trips give opportunity for a student to get out of the classroom and experience something new. The located place for field trip can be zoos, colleges, school farm, Natural Park, industry and forest or game reserve. In addition, Aliyu, (2008) observes that field trip is taking students out of the classroom to places where they can see concrete illustration of classroom theories. It also offers direct observation and interpretation of the substance in their natural surroundings. It is on the spot requires the use of basic scientific skills that is observation, identification, classification and manipulation of substance in the natural surroundings. It provides real life context for the material being learned. Field trip facilitates the learning of abstract concepts. Taking students on a field trip makes learning more effective as they will be able to gain vast ideas on the topic. Involvement in a real-world experience makes learning more meaningful and memorable comparing to regular classroom instructional programs. As a result, the students will have more concept of the topic as they have learnt through their hand-on experiences. Concrete skills such as note taking. Also, Students develop questions to be asked, write reports or thank you letters after the trip, or evaluate their experiences. Field trips can add variety to the regular instructional program; they tend to be special and enjoyable learning experiences, ones which develop positive attitudes in students toward related classroom activities. Field trips are rich in educational possibilities because students learn from actual firsthand experiences, rather than by simply reading or hearing about something.
Field trips help the students appreciate the relevance and importance of what they learn in the classroom. E.g. determining blood type is a skill, which can be learned in a school laboratory setting, but students may not learn the importance of this skill until they observe what goes on in a real hospital where life and death are. The research aim at the effect of field trip on biology students’ achievements in secondary schools in Khana Local Government Area. A field trip is a visit to a place outside the regular classroom which is designed to achieve certain objectives, which cannot be achieved as well by using other means.
Biology as a branch of science, is a general body of knowledge (science), has been defined by different scientists according to perception and understanding of the subject. Okwo and Tawtiyas, (2000) define biology as a science which involves systematic study of living things and interaction with each other and their environment. Kalu, (2007) simply defines biology as the science of life. Biology as a science of life is concerned with the characteristics of living things, their forms, functions and relationship with one another and with their environment among others. However, for effective biology teaching, the use of method/strategy which would make use of the environment, achieve much and bring home the actual meaning of the concepts. Among science subjects (chemistry, physics and biology), biology is the most popular (Ibrahim 2008). It is a core (compulsory) subject for almost all Senior Secondary school students in Nigeria.
Due to immense benefits of the subject (Biology) to both individual and societal development, the Federal Government of Nigeria, in the National policy on education, (FME2005), made biology a core science subject at the senior secondary school (SSS). The objectives of biology Program are:
Adequate laboratory and field skills in Biology;
It motivates students through increased interest and curiosity. Field trips can add variety to the regular classroom instructional program and they tend to be special and enjoyable learning experiences. As a result, students develop positive attitudes toward related classroom activities, Increases teacher-student, student-student and student-teacher social interaction. Field trips provide an opportunity to involve students, parents, and the teachers in the instructional program.
Learning is the act of acquiring new, or modifying and reinforcing existing knowledge which may lead to potential change in synthesizing information relative to the type and range of experience.
1.2 Statement of the problem
Majority of the biology field trips are designed to show particular places and processes and are thus expository in nature. The natural settings are used as extension of biology laboratory for students’ investigation. The biology curriculum in used emphasizes on discovery learning by the students, and it is most appropriate and timely. Field trips serve as access tools for the students.
Students should be thoroughly exposed in the learning process to bring out the best in them. This can be achieved via field trips. However, sad to say, the government, parents, teachers and other stakeholder of education seem to have complacent attitude toward the use of field trips. The lack of tourism facilities and other related expenses are often blamed to delimit use of field trips, as a means of teaching and learning. Hence the study, effect of field trip in biology students’ achievement in secondary schools in Khana Local Government Area.
1.3 Purpose of the Research
The main purpose of the study is to investigate the effect of field trip in biology students’ achievement in secondary schools in Khana Local Government Area. The specific objectives are as follows:
1.4 Research question
The following questions are postulated in order to achieve the main purpose of the study.
1.5 Significance of the study
The research shall elucidate the nature of field trips in teaching and learning biology in secondary schools in Khana Local Government. It shall also serve as a veritable source of information on issues of field trip in students’ achievement. The finding of this study will be quite significance in the educational sector.
1.6 Scope of the study
The study shall appraise the effect of field trip in biology students’ achievement in secondary schools in Khana Local Government Area and elucidates the use of field trip in teaching and learning of biology. The study is limited to teaching and learning of biology,
1.7 Definition of terms
Aliyu, (2008) observes that field trip is taking students out of the classroom to places where they can see concrete illustration of classroom theories. It also offers direct observation and interpretation of the substance in their natural surroundings.
According to Mirriam Webster Dictionary, it is a school for children between the ages of 11 – 16 or 18 or an intermediate between the elementary school and college.
A student is a learner or someone who attends an educational institution
Something designed to produce a distinctive or desired impression. change that results when something is done or happens