1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Many factors influence students' academic performance and learning, these includes teacher qualification, age, teaching faculty, students' schooling, guardian social economic status, residential area of students, and school medium of instruction, tuition trend, daily study hour, and accommodation as hostels or day scholars. Many scholars studied the elements that influence student performance at various stages of education in depth.
Learning and academic performance increase the inculcation of academic information, skills, talents, and competency among individuals. There are various elements in secondary schools that play a vital role in improving students' academic success. Students' academic performance influences their long-term ambitions and aspirations. What subjects they will study in colleges and universities, which educational institutions they will enrol in, and what professional paths they will pursue, and so on.
The greatest way to identify trained teacher is to look at their work, not their history or experiences. Effective teachers cannot be reliably recognized based on where they went to school, whether they are registered, or how long they have been teaching, contrary to popular belief. The best method to evaluate a teacher's efficacy is to examine their job performance, which includes what they do in the classroom and how far their pupils improve on achievement exams. Teachers who are deemed to be of high quality are those who help students learn.
The Universal Basic Education Commission's (UBEC) recent allegation that 80% of instructors employed in schools lacked teaching qualifications offered more insight into the serious nature of the crisis that our educational system is now experiencing. The goal of education is to offer information that will help individuals integrate and grow into more valuable members of society capable of addressing issues. Qualified teachers have been identified as an important tool for achieving effective teaching. It is crucial to note that inadequate and bad teaching as a key topic in the school curriculum has continued to wreak mayhem by shattering the hopes and aspirations of certain pupils, particularly those who are ambitious. According to the National Policy on Education (2016) requires that the National Certificate of Education be the minimum recognized certification for teaching (NCE). University graduates in fields other than education who wish to pursue a career in teaching must now acquire a Post-graduate Diploma in Education, which replaces the previous minimum of a teachers certificate (Grade II) (PGDE).
Nobody could have predicted that secondary schools in Nasarawa state had degraded to such a low level, according to a Nigeria education observer survey, which found that secondary schools in Nasarawa state had degenerated in the last 15 to 16 years. The shocking news which was retorted as one of the lead headlines in the Guardian, one of Nigeria’s major daily newspapers, was published on the 11th of February 2016. the screaming head line reads; ‘’ federal ministry of education has scores Nasarawa state secondary level low most on social studies’’ The guardian newspaper quoted the federal ministry of education sponsored study that secondary school teachers in Nasarawa are poorly trained and unproductive subjects.
According to the research, pupils' low performance in Nasarawa is mostly due to two factors: inadequate mastery of unskilled teachers and a lack of technical expertise. According to the research, secondary pupils in Nasarawa for the past fifteen years are unsuitable due to inadequacies in two critical areas. The survey also found that there is a significant gap between unskilled teachers and their pupils' academic achievement this has led to the study which centres on assessment of the impact of untrained teachers on the academic performance of secondary school students in Nasarawa state.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The low academic performance of students in secondary schools in Nasarawa state has motivated educational scholars to work tirelessly throughout the years to discover mitigating variables that may account for the observed poor performance. According to several studies, variables both within and outside the classroom have an impact on students' success and interest. Students' poor study habits, low self-esteem, teacher factors (teacher quality), teacher shortages, inadequate teaching facilities in schools, home factor, school environmental factors, and many more were found as variables. Despite their best efforts, students continue to struggle in this topic. In this line, the quality of instructors in our secondary schools has been connected to one of the causes of students' poor performance. As a result, there is a need to investigate the quality of teachers in our secondary schools, because good teaching elicits effective learning. The essential function of teachers in the transfer of information and skills is never questioned. As a result, in this major function, a teacher must exhibit efficiency. It is true that the intellectual background and training of teachers are issues here. Students have deficiencies and low academic performance, which may be traced back to a lack of teacher competency in our classrooms. It has also been noted that the current status of education in Nigeria suggests that many secondary school instructors are not professional educators. This might be one of the reasons for the poor performance of students in the subject. Therefore, this study centres on an assessment of the impact of untrained teachers on the academic performance of secondary school students in Nasarawa state.
1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The main aim of this study is to assessment of the impact of untrained teachers on the academic performance of secondary school students in Nasarawa state. The specific objectives of this study were to:
1) To assess the level of untrained teachers in secondary schools.
2) To examine the impact of untrained teachers on the academic performance of secondary school students in Nasarawa state
3) To examine factors that influence academic performance of secondary school students in Nasarawa state
4) To examine the importance of qualified teachers and the problems facing them.
5) To recommend solutions to the problems facing qualified teachers
1.4. RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1) What is the level of untrained teachers in secondary schools?
2) What is the impact of untrained teachers on the academic performance of secondary school students in Nasarawa State?
3) What are the factors that influence academic performance of secondary school students in Nasarawa State?
4) What is the importance of qualified teachers and the problems facing them?
5) What are the solutions to the problems facing qualified teachers?
1.5. RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
H0: There is no significant impact of untrained teachers on the academic performance of secondary school students in Nasarawa state
H1: There is a significant impact of untrained teachers on the academic performance of secondary school students in Nasarawa state
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The findings will enlightened the head teachers and other teachers of secondary schools in Nasarawa state on assessment of the impact of untrained teachers on the academic performance of secondary school students in Nasarawa state. This is because the factors affecting the academic performance were reviewed and their effects were brought to light.
The ministry of education will also benefit from the findings of this study in that the results obtained revealed the situation on the ground on the matters pertaining to classroom management were brought to light. This information will be useful in the formulation of policies and the improvement of the already set policies, towards the improvement of learning and the betterment of the Nigerian education system at large.
This study is significant because of its possible benefits to the teachers, the educational administrators, the students and all stake holders in the educational sector.
1.7. SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study is restricted to an assessment of the impact of untrained teachers on the academic performance of secondary school students in Nasarawa state
1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.9 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
Untrained: not having been trained in a particular skill.
Teacher: a person who teaches, especially in a school.
Secondary school: a school intermediate between elementary school and college and usually offering general, technical, vocational, or college-preparatory courses.
Students: A student is primarily a person enrolled in a school or other educational institution and who is under learning with goals of acquiring knowledge, developing professions and achieving employment at desired field
Academic Performance: These are test scores that students get after sitting for an exam
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