In the part, there has been a great set back between the developing nations of the world in general and Nigeria in particular regarding the need for industrialization. Therefore much emphasis has been laid on the teaching of computer science from primary school level which is seen as a basic necessity of the dreams of industrialization are ever to come true. In Nigeria, the adoption of 60% to 40% ratio policy in admission of students into the secondary schools in a step considered imperative if the country must develop technologically. However, computer science as a field of study has existed unknowingly among us many years before the introduction formal education in Nigeria but only popularized just in the recent past with the arrival of western educationist.
Our fore-father never saw the four walls of the classrooms nor attended any schools, they were actually making use of tools in their daily activities. The situation is not different from what we have today expect with little modification for example, our fore-father were able to produce cutlasses, holes and knives which were used to cut grasses, make ridges and other things, like the use of stones and their hands to count money and also brain to solve calculations like addition, subtraction, division and multiplication. Computer science has a lot of abstraction and also has strong base in our culture. If it is properly taught and adopted, its application will become part and parcel of our every day life activities.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Computer science plays an important role in the life of every mankind. The government desire to create a scientifically literate citizenry as well as the need to effectively make her industries with the much needed man power, required the need for total reevaluation and improvement of the method used in teaching computer science. This will enhance the comprehension and to some extent stimulate interest in the natural and physical sciences which forms the basis for much technological transfer. The use of integrated computer science resource materials will appeal to their senses and feelings and consequently, aids learning. Resources materials provide effective means of learning especially when the teacher skillfully integrate them during teaching processes, they serve as aids meaningful instructions.
As teachers we need to understand the students who receive educational instructions from us, we need to study all the factors affecting the pupils before we can properly assess the performance level of students in any subject. Research findings have shown that students’ performance in computer science and integrated science or any other subject is generally poor over the years. (Fakuade, 1976 and Egbede 1993). This may not be due to a number of courses, it may be due to lack of equipments and facilities in the schools. Lack of qualifies and experience teacher, Unfavourable atmosphere, lack of space, frequent change of schools by children etc. it may be pertinent to note that majority of the students, primary and secondary school have different level of performance in computer science.
According to T. S. Bajah 1970 and Farnant J. A. 1964, these educationist prove that education is child centred and that the aim of education is to develop the child in all areas of human endeavours of which computer science is all. The importance of the child and computer science in modern educational system is very relevant. Nigeria today is referred to as developing country because of its low level of technology advancement. It is therefore a well-known fact that Nigeria requires solid foundations in computer science subjects in order to develop her technologies. The manufacturing of hardware and sophisticated materials which make many countries developed and industrialized were only possible through a proper acquisition of the basic knowledge of computer science.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The best place to establish computer science culture is the formative years of primary school. Meaningful teaching and learning in this state requires concrete examples, which are likely to be absent in most schools. It is in this regard that researcher intend to find out the relationship between availability and the use of instructional materials and the students performance in computer science in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State and then suggest ways of encouraging children, teachers, and administrators to pay more attention to the use of instructional materials in order to improve the performance level in computer science in primary schools. Consequently, this study will consider the following areas:
1. Lack of sufficiency in the number of manpower specifically trained to teach computer science in these primary schools.
2. Availability and use of improvised materials in the teaching of computer science in the primary school.
3. The level of state and local government commitment to the acquisition of basic primary school computer science equipments requisite for the effective teaching of computer science in these schools.
4. Lack of interest on the part of the teachers
5. The interest of the student in computer science.
1.3 PURPOSE OF STUDY
This study is to determine the relationship between availability and the use of instructional materials and students’ performance in the teaching and learning of computer science and also suggest ways to improve the students’ performance
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
Having identified the problem of the study, in order to give directives to this work, some research questions were formulated. They are stated as follows:
1. What are the effect of non availability of instructional materials? it leads to
a. The failure of pupils
b. The poor performance of pupils
c. Lack of understanding of the subject.
2. Is there an instructional material? How is it used? It is poorly use.
3. Does the use of instructional materials enhance effective teaching and learning of computer science?
4. Is there computer science equipment and laboratory?
5. Does pupils’ background affect the use of resource materials in the schools?
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Some of the benefits that will be derived from this study are highlighted as follows:
1. The study will aid teachers in the use of instructional materials to facilitate the teaching and learning of com0uter science.
2. To determine students attitude towards computer science subject.
3. To crate awareness of the importance of instructional materials.
4. To ascertain the level of students performance in computer science.
5. The study will draw the attention of government, voluntary agencies, PTA and community to improving better use of instructional materials to sustain the teaching of the subject.
6. The analysis and results to these problems will enable curriculum planner of computer science to improve or draw up a better curriculum to suit the need of the pupils.
1.6 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Computer: An electronic device used to process data and information.
Science: The study of structure and behaviour of physical and natural world and society.
PTA: parents teachers associations
Industrialization: To develop industry
Knowledge: The act of knowing
Technology: The scientific study and use of applied science.
Develop: To become advance or more organized.