1.1 Background of Study
Human beings have desires for many things in life, particularly those that are very essential to their well-being such as food, shelter, good water and medical facilities. For these reasons people have constantly moved from one place to another in search of better life. The movement could be temporal or permanent depending on the causes one of the most note worthy demographic phenomena faced by many developing countries in the world is the shortage of labour, food and security conversely there is rapid population growth in the urban centers, which is largely caused by the prevalence of rural- urban migration (Ayesa and kim, 2001). Rural-urban is a double edge problem affecting both the rural and urban communities. Aworemietal (2011) contend that the rural community is affected because the youth and adults who are supposed to remain and contributed to the growth of agriculture in particular and the community in general, leave the rural areas and move to the cities. The labour of able
bodied men and women could likely lead to lechne in agricultural production (Regmi and Tisdel, 2002, Anagloetal 2004). According to UN Report (2013), assumed that 40% of the migrants originated from the rural areas and many of them are youths with high propensity to migrate. Aworemietal, (2011). The unavailability of livelihood requirement especially the social amenities and job opportunities in the rural areas lead to the massive migration of the youths to the urban centers in search of greener pasture.
1.2 Statement of Problem
Rural urban migration has remained a persistent problem in the country. The failure of government to adequately provide the basic rural infrastructure in the rural communities has made life difficult to the rural dwellers. This has necessitated the problem rural-urban migration. According to push factor like, poor employment, natural disaster, low wages, political instability and shortage of housing due to erosion has made the young once that do, cultivates and harvest crops to migrate to urban areas in search for better life. In the past and even in recent time, government have made efforts to reducing rural-urban migration :- such efforts include :-
Rural development was given a specific attention. The emphasis was placed on agricultural transformation as a necessary strategy for hastening the development of the rural area as to stem the drift of the population from rural to urban area. This lead to the creation of the famous “Rivers Basin Authority” in the 70’s due to the recommendation of the food and agricultural organization (FAO) although there was a belief that the programme had some impact, but there was a general census that the output from the authority channeled into it. Another one is the directorate for food, roads and rural infrastructure (DFRR) 1986, this program was established when it was discovered that agricultural development, with corresponding development of the accompany social, economic and institutional infrastructure can not eradicate rural poverty. Also better life for rural women, this was an innovative programme founded by Maryam Babagida’s wife, then as the head of state. The primary objective of the programme was to mobilize rural women to participate effectively in the development process of the rural area. The programme lasted only four years. Besides these are other such as national directorate of employment (NDE), school to land, national agricultural development authority, national
orientation agency (NOA) with all these programme founded by the government for the development of the rural area, still there is no development because all these programme did not last for a long time.
In the study area it was observed through the census figure of 1999 and that of 2006 that the population in Anyama Ogbia is reduced that is why the study was to examine socio economic impact in the area.
1.3 Goal and Objectives
The goal of this study is to access the socio economic impact of rural- urban migration of Anyama Ogbia, in Bayelsa state,
Objective of the Study
1. To identify the reasons for out migration in study area out
2. To identify the dominant group that is affected by migration
3. To identify the major socio-economic impact of migration on study area.
1.4 Research Question
1. What are reason for out migration in the study area
2. What are the dominant age group that are affected by out migration
3. What are socio- economic effect of out migration in the study area
1.5 Significance of the Study
The study is mainly concerned with the socio-economic importance of rural-urban migration. According to INSTAAR (2007), studying the migration of human gives us knowledge of the development of human civilization, it helps us to about the economic system, pattern of human existences and even gives us away to ensure the future survival of the human race and the significance of the study are those different factors that enforce issues of migration. Household expand over time, and yet allotment of land is fixed and continues to be divided between household members posing productivity constrains on generation to come. The finding of the study will become a base for other planners, policy maker and public administrators and develop mentalist in local regional areas. Therefore land is a major constraint in the study areas. Its effect on agricultural productivity shall also be examined.
1.6 Scope of the Study
This study focuses on the socio-economic impact of rural urban migration in Anyama Ogbia. The study has been geared to finding out why people are migrating from Anyama
Community. This research shows the push factor of migrant in the town.
1.7 Limitation of the Study
The study of migration is an immense area of systematic investigation and needs an ample devotion of time attention to acquire knowledge.
1.8 Geography of the Study Area
Anyama Ogbia is a village that is located in the eastern part of Bayelsa state, Nigeria. Its has a river is about 12feet, it is bounded by the Ewoye community by the North, by Ojezabiri community in the south, by Otueganagu in the East and by Otuedu community in the West. According to the 2006 census the populace of the study area is 5,701. The cultural belief of the Anyama man about the creator is that the Almighty God created the Ogbia kingdom that is the reason why they don’t have national deity. They believe in national spirit which is the ikpesu of the land and the spirit of their land and the spirit that give wealth. The Anyama people have their traditional play known as membassy masquerade dancing celebration every end of the year and at the burial of the chiefs and other people that are been respected in the land. They believe that the ikpesu land
Normally show them way or help whenever they have problems or miss their ways in any place.
1.9 Definition of Terms
1. Migration: This is the movement of people from one ecological region to another; it may be on temporary or permanent basis. It is the movement of people from rural area-urban area in search of better life
2. Socio-Economic: This is the field of study that examines socials and economic factors to better understand how the combination of both influences something.
The prefix socio-refers of the study to the study of the behaviors of people, including the ways they interact with one another in their family structure.
Economic refers to the economy, such as people’s income and finances. Socio-economic links financial and social issues together
a. Rural Area: this is a country side is a geographic area that is located outside local and cities. The health recess and services administration of the US department of health and human services, defines the word rural as encompassing all population, housing and territory included within an urban area.