CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Nigeria is well endowed with abundant of natural, human and material resounds which are noted as much for their varieties as far as their quantities and qualities. The vast and varied resources endowment is a function partly of the country’s large geographical extent and parts of diversity of her natural environment.
Basically, it is formed by the fact that human life and development is based on the extent to which man can satisfy the basic needs such as food, clothing and shelter. In order to fulfill these, man requires access to certain amenities such as “market, parks, housing, water supply, electricity and adequate transportation”. These amenities are however, unequally distributed over space. But these social amenities form an important and integral part of life of any community either urban or rural.
Many empirical findings have show that social amenities are unequally distributed in our communities such that the vast majority of the people are caught in a never ending struggle to gain access to them in order to improve their quality of life (Eyles 19956, Oyerinde, 2006). Inequalities in access to social infrastructures may also be as a result of inefficiency in the distribution and allocation between areas or as a result of physical barriers (e.g. rivers) and social barriers (e.g. ethnicity, religion or status) which may directly limit certain groups from having access to the facilities. This is a prominent characteristic of a capitalist economy (Stevenson, 2004). These inequalities are for the most part, the direct and inevitable result of the normal operation of the capitalist mode of production. Capitalist inequality is a major factor in determining the physical and psychological plight of the majority of the human race, particularly in the areas of income distribution, life expectancy, infant mortality, morbidity, physical and mental illness all of which are examples of deprivation which threaten the social order and development of any nation.
The spatial variation in availability and access to infrastructures result in spiritual disparities in living standards both within and between regions and localities (Madu, 2007).
According to the United Nations human development report (UNHDR) published in 1999, while 1.3 billion people struggled to live on less than US $1.00 a day, the world’s richest 200 people doubted their net wroth between 1994 and 1998 to more than $1.0 trillion US dollars. Also, as at 1999 above $40 million people reported to be malnourished and close to their basic consumption requirements. More than 880 million people lacked access to health services and 2.6 billion people had no access to basic sanitation (UNHDR Report, 1999).
Access to social Amenities inspires life and well being. This in turn breeds a sense of self-reliance, national pride and also aids the realization of full potentials and opportunities by the individual thereby reducing inequalities among the citizenry (Oyebanji, 1978). Infrastructure is an important part of any rural community. Provision of such facilities discourages rural-urban migration which means that public facilities have to be provided to both urban and rural communities (Mabogunje, 1997).
If developments are to be viable in the long term, they need to create places where people will want to live and work. Despite many policies and programmes including workshops that are been initiated by the government and organize private sector to provide adequate social amenities within the state and the country in general, the situation has still remain the same. Larger scale schemes are likely to require the provision of a wide range of social amenities (including health, educational, recreational and other facilities) which is needed to serve the new community, thereby enhancing the quality, image and desirability of a new place as well as its commercial value
Moreover, the location is also relevant to the overall urban structure. To consolidate urban structure and the cost of providing urban infrastructure, the existing infrastructure is more effectively utilized in the built-up urban areas, the infrastructure includes services such as sewage and drains, road, and public transport as well as social amenities such as health care facilities, education facilities and other community services. Their influence exerts a complex interaction that will affect the value of land and the properties. Therefore, social amenities such as hospitals, schools, recreational centers and green areas teds to foster healthy living and has a significant on individual life style which will go a long way to unify both the government and private partnership in providing liable environment and business atmosphere.
Finally, it is against the background that the research study tends to look at the problems associated in the study with the view to provide a solution for the benefit of the residents in the urban setup and the state in general.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Human life and development is based on the extent to which man can satisfy the basic needs such as food, clothing and shelter. In order to fulfill these and other needs, man requires access to certain facilities such as market, housing, water supply, electricity, health and adequate transportation. These facilities are however, unequally distributed over space. (Eyles, 1996, Oyerinde, 2006).
Inequalities in access to social infrastructures may also be as a result of inefficiency in the distribution and allocation of facilities between areas or as a result of social barriers like ethnicity, region or status which may directly limit certain groups from having access to public facilities. This is a prominent characteristic of a capitalist economy (Stevenson 2004).
Therefore, from aforementioned problems stated, this research work tends to examine the problem associated to unequal distribution of social amenities in my study area with the view to provide a conducive environment as well as growth and development of Igwuruta community.
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTION
The research questions formulated to guide this study are as follows:
iii. If there are, to what extent or level does it impact on the land value?
1.4 AIM AND OBJECTIVES
The aim of this work is to assess the impact of social amenities on land value in Igwuruta community. In order to achieve this aim, the following objectives must be achieved.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study will be useful to property owners, particularly to the government parastatas, because, the researcher will assess the impact of social amenities on land value in Igwuruta community to promote healthy living in the society.
This will ensure that, the quality of life of people will improve and adequate measures are given to charter for the increase population. Furthermore, it is to also ensure that the value of land in the study area have improved when the right mix of social amenities are available.
It is believe that the findings of this researcher work would be useful, not only to the researcher but render further researches and well serve as guide to professionals, the government and the private developers.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This research work cover residential properties in the study area, to set a proper view of the impact of social amenities on land values for the period of 6 years (2010-1016).
The amenities for this research are schools, Health centers and Recreational centers within the scope area and it is strictly on both registered and unregistered residential land values. These areas will be express using charts and multiple regression analysis.
1.7 THE STUDY AREA- IGWURUTA.
Igwuruta is a town in Ikwere, Rivers State Nigeria. It is located near Omagwa, a community hosting the Port-Harcourt international Airport. It’s geographic coordinates are: 4057’15’’N 700’45’’E/4. 954170 N 7.01500 E (4.9543911, 7.0126247).
The Ikwerre are one of the many native ethnic groups in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. They are subgroup of the Igbo people. They constitute the majority of Rivers State, although there are other populations in neighboring states. The Ikwerre speaks the Ikwerre language, a dialet part of the many Dwerse Igbo dialects, and are predominantly settled in the Ikwerre, Obio-Akpor, Port-Harcourt and Emohua Local Government areas. Ikwerre is a local Government Area in Rivers State, Nigeria. Its headquarters is in the town of Isiokpo.
1.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The following limitations were encountered:
1.9 DEFINITION OF SPECIFIC TERMS
Social Amenities: Social amenities are seen as those infrastructures that contributes to the physical and material comfort and that increases attractiveness and values in a particular geographical location.
Land: Land is seen as the surface within which, and on which life takes place. Land is fixed and indestructible because, space cannot be destroyed.
Value: value is actually the worth of a particular object. It is also an estimate of the cost of a commodity or certain date depending on its utility, scarcity, transferability and marketability.
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