1.1 Background of the Study
Human beings have the natural tendency to relocate their settlement in search of white collars jobs, trade and businessin order to satisfy their wants which include food, shelter, clothing, safety, finance and other materials wants or needs. This has ledto the influx of people from rural to urban areas, culminating in high population density of these urban centres. The net effect is that there is a high pressure demand and struggle for available natural and material resources in the urban centres, resulting in what may be regarded as the “survival of the fittest” in the urban area. The problem in the city is that everybody wants to work, build and even trade in the cities; whereas there are enough space, land to build and trade on in the villages.
The migrations of people from rural to the urban cities have caused a lot of problems and discomfort to such areas. The economic problem that generated inflation in urban area was as a result of high population density. The underdevelopment in the rural area is as a result of movement of people to the urban area which has led to less demand of facilities like electricity, road, health centerpipe borne water etc., to the area (rural); thereby making the area to remain undeveloped and forcing people to migrate to urban city.
According to George (1976), Nigeria is still said to be a rural nation and the rate of the nation’s urbanization is relatively one of the highest in the world. Nigeria urban population grows at an annual rate of five percent (5%) NkemOluchi (2002) this has affected the urban centre, and if this growth rate is sustained, the population will increase in years to come.
In recent time, with the advent of model markets couple with other private establishment (organizations), rural dwellers migrated to Bori. In the history of the world, all countries have at one time or the other fought the problem of rural underdevelopment. They have tackled the problem through various rural development strategies to an extent that in the developed world, rural under development has attained significant height.
According to Makinwa (1981), in order to eradicate the occurrence of rural-urban migration between (1979) and (1983) during the military administration, the government passed some bill establishing the new town and decentralization to government function and other social and infrastructural facilities to the rural areas as means of reducing rural-urban migration.
However, the absence (lack) of some of the above mentioned facilities will contribute greatly to rapid urbanization which will result to inadequate housing and brought about increase in formation of slums, squatter settlement, low standard of living, transportation problem, increase in crime rate, unemployment and congestion in the city (urban centre).
Therefore, to eliminate or reduce rural urban migration, the facilities which the rural people are running to meet in the urban for a better livelihood should be provided for them (rural area) in order to enhance quality livelihood and reduce or eliminate the idea of rural urban migration.
1.0 Statement of the Problem
Since Bori became the administrative headquarter of Khana a lot of people have migrated and are still migrating from the rural areas and even from some urban areas into it.They camein search of job opportunities, apprenticeship trading etc. Problems of accommodation and rent increase and overcrowding set in.
Much household use a kitchen and a bathroom in building. Dust bin litter everywhere in the town. These lead to environmentalpollution in Bori. Overcrowding increases the risk of diseases infection, rates of crime, social disorganization etc. This problematic situation prompted this study.
1.1 Aim and Objectives of the Study
The general aim of the study is to examine the effect of rural-urban migration on property values.
Specifically, the following objectives Arepursued:
1. To examine the factors responsible for rural-urban migration.
2. To determine the types of properties seriously affected.
3. To determine the effect on property values.
1.2 Research Questions
The following research questions are set to guide the study.
1. What are the causes of rural-urban migration?
2. What types of properties are mostly affected?
3. What are the effect on the value of properties?
1.3 Scope of the Study
The study is restricted to the effect of rural-urban migration on the value of properties in Bori, Khana L.G.A, Rivers State. The study was restricted to the old Bori Township encompassing Kaani Road through Taabaa to Hospital Road. The area was chosen to examine answers to the topic.
1.4 Significance of the Study
This research work is carried out with the hope and belief that the result enable government to carry out a policy that will guide towards reducing rural urban migration and improve property values.
It will also provide a way for every reader of this work to know the significance of property value to human and the strategy that should be used to improve property value in the study area. It will also help future researchers in the field of Estate Management to know the effect of rural-urban migration on property values.
Furthermore, this study will also be of great benefit to future research. This type of work or study will equally be vital to town planners and government so as to know how to minimize the issue of rural-urban migration and itsconsequences, this will in fact help to determine how best the rural-urban areaswill equate with resources and also equal distribution of basicFacilitiestorural and urban area.
This research work will also help the urban planner to plan the urban structures in the way thatwill accommodate people. Finally, this work intends to find ways of controlling rural-urban migration consequences by proffering sourcerelevant solution to it.
1.5 The Study Area (Bori)
The study area is Bori in Khana Local Government Area, found in Rivers State bounded by other ethnic nationalities like the Andoni, Opoboetc .
Historically, the present Bori urban has many adjoiningcommunities including Kaani, Nortem, Zaakpon, Betem, Kor, Wiiyaakara, Kpong and Bo-ue.
Bori is a rich urban area which has the present Kenule Benson Saro-Wiwa Polytechnic formally Known as Rivers state Polytechnic. Other economic activities take place like the Daily market (Evening market) and farming etc.
Rainfall pattern is not different from what rivers state is. The seasons are of two type the dry and raining seasons. The dry season begins from November to March and the raining season starts from April to October,withlittle break in August. The population of the local government is put at 294, 217 by 2006 census estimated.
In terms of schools in Bori, there is many school both nursery, primary and secondary There is motorparks and nameswhich have to different streets and communities in Bori.
Religiously,in Bori, there is Christian religion, Muslim, religion and also traditional religion. The most noticeable churchesamongstthe Christians religious areCatholic Church, Anglican, Methodist, Deeper Life and other churches. Finally Bori is a well planned with amenities like pipe-borne water electricity, good roads, electricity’s and socio amenites in the old bori township although the new neighbourhoods suffer some defect due to lack of basic amenities facilities and unplanned development.
1.8 Limitations of the Study
In the process of carrying out this research work, some of the limitation include
(a) Lack of adequate research materials: On the process of carrying out this research work, there were no adequate materials such as textbooks, journals, related to the topic which causes delay in writing .
(b) Financial constraint: There was also insufficient fund at the disposal of the researcher to gather all necessary information needed.
(c) Time factor: Due to other school activities such as lectures, assignment and studying, time was a problem as to where to start from.
1.16 Definition of Specific Terms
The terms used in respect to this project work are defined below:
Effect: According to Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary (8th Edition), effect is defined as a change that somebody or something cause in someone or something else.the outcome of an event.
Rural: is define as an area that harbours less than twenty thousand inhabitants with settlements, (characterized as linear, isolated nucleated) including farming. It can also be seen as a place that harbours twenty thousand people and believe in a pattern of system and culture governing them.
Urban: It is an area with a population of about twenty thousand and above with all necessary basic facilities (egroad,pipe borne water, electricity etc.,) to meet the need of the society. It can also be seen as a development part of a country with various business opportunities.
Migration: Is the movement of large number of people from one place to another.
Property: According to Udechukwu, C. E. (2006), property is defined as the interest which can be acquired in an object or thing.in this context,it is land and improvement done on it.
Value: Is the worth of goods in monetary terms which can be exchange. It can also be seen as the worth of something in terms of money or other goods for which it can be exchanged.
Rural-urban migration: This is the movement of people from the rural area into the urban area or city.
Property value: It is the worth that a property command to it vendor after proper valuation or examination. It can also be seen as the monetaryworth of something which can be acquired.
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