1.0 CHAPTER ONE
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
A bandit is a robber or outlaw who belongs to a group and operates in an isolated or lawless area of a country, stealing or robbing people with weapons. Acts of robbery and violence in countries where the rule of law has broken down are referred to as banditry (Collins, 2010). The organizing of armed bands for the goal of attacking state or societal institutions, businesses, or individuals is known as banditry. Participation in such bands, as well as the attacks perpetrated by them, is considered banditry (Collins, 2010). Since the 19th century, when bandits riding largely on horseback moved from their hideouts to attack communities and then retreated back to their hideouts, banditry has existed and functioned in various parts of the world. Bandits have occurred in Europe, primarily in the mountainous regions of Italy, Spain, Greece, and Turkey (Bankoff, 2019). Bandits have been found in various Asian countries, including Iran, the Philippines, and India (cassia, 2013). Any sort of violence that causes insecurity in rural areas where farmers make up the bulk of the population is sure to have an effect on food production and farming methods around the world.
A farming system is an integrated collection of operations that farmers carry out on their farms in order to maximize production and net farm income on a long-term basis, given their resources and circumstances. A farming system is a method of establishing farm-household systems that is based on the concepts of productivity, profitability, stability, and long-term viability. Understanding farm home and community interlinkages, reviewing restrictions, and assessing potentials are all part of the agricultural system method. However, the surge in banditry attacks on farming communities has become a major source of economic concern.
Bandits in India are known as Daku in Hindi, a term adopted by British colonialists during the colonial period. Thus, in the Indian subcontinent, where bandits have operated for many years in north and north central India, dacoity has become a synonym for banditry. Gabbar Singh, a well-known dacoit, was the subject of the 1975 Bollywood film Sholay (Flames), which was based on his life. As a result, banditry has a long and lucrative history in South Asia, and despite ongoing anti-banditry measures, the problem still exists in India today (Dmella,2018). Bandits have continued to plague the Horn of Africa, East and Central Africa, and the trans-Saharan trade routes from Niger Republic to Libya, posing another security threat in Africa (Aregbesola, 2020). Banditry has existed in sections of Chad and surrounding Lake Chad, and it is also prevalent in portions of Southern Africa (Aregbesola, 2020). The prevalence and severity of banditry in West Africa has contributed to a rise in regional instability, posing a threat to the sub-regional region's integration (Abdullahi, 2019). According to reports, some bandits from the West African sub-region, such as the Niger Republic and Mali, were asked to carry out large-scale attacks in several of the sub-countries. Region’s they travelled via West Africa's porous borders, weaponry in hand, to aid their fellow bandits in carrying out large-scale or retaliatory attacks. Banditry emerged in Nigeria as a result of over four decades of unresolved conflicts between sedentary cultivators and nomadic herding populations who roam the high plains of northern Nigeria, particularly in the North West geopolitical zone in states like Zamfara and kastina states. Banditry in Zamfara state began about 2009 and became more prevalent in 2011, particularly after the general elections (Anka,2017). In fact, Zamfara State was the epicenter of Nigerian banditry, with most of the bandits' commanders based there. From there, they would ride motorbikes to neighboring states, such as Katsina, to operate and then return to their forest dens (Farouq &Chukwu,2020).
Banditry had thus begun in Katsina state by 2010, particularly in the seven Local Government Areas (LGAs) that shared a border with Zamfara, namely Jibia, Batsari, Safana, Danmusa, Kankara, Faskari, and Sabua. Banditry is sure to have an effect on food production since it involves acts of robbery and violence against individuals, particularly rural inhabitants who are primarily engaged in farming, livestock breeding, and other food production activities. According to the World Food Summit of 1996, food security "exists when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food that fits their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life" (FAO,2016). Food security is defined by the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO, 2010) as the availability of food in terms of production, distribution, and consumption. Any sort of violence that causes insecurity in rural areas where the bulk of the population is farmers is sure to have an impact on global food security. In September 2020, the United Nations predicted that attacks by the Al-Shabaab insurgent organization will exacerbate food insecurity in Mozambique through 2021. (Channels TV,2020). The Federal Government of Nigeria has recognized that banditry poses a severe threat to farming communities in the country's northern regions. As a result, in April 2017, the Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development, in collaboration with the Minister of Interior, established a special Agro-Rangers Corps unit to protect farmers and farming interests across the country (The Sun,2017). The usage of the Agro-Rangers was supposed to prevent attacks on fields and give farmers more confidence to operate on their farms without fear of being attacked, ensuring the Federal Government's food security plans (NSCDC, 2017) President Buhari announced the deployment of 5,000 Agro-Rangers to defend farmers and farming interests across the country during his Democracy Day speech on June 12 (Oyeleke, 2020). During an on-the-spot assessment of bandit activity in Kastina State in December 2018, the Minister of Interior noted that the persistent attacks on people of the state by bandits will have an effect on food production in Nigeria as a whole (Agency Report,2018). According to a recent study by Ayinde et al. (2020), chronic and seasonal food insecurity persist in every part of Nigeria, and is exacerbated by the effects of insurgency in the north east, armed banditry in the north west, communal, pastoral and farmers crises, kidnapping, cattle rustling, and climate change. Conflicts also have a negative impact on households, preventing them from engaging in routine livelihood activities such as farming with limited access to markets and income-generating activities, according to the report. Some farmers in Katsina State warned in May 2020 that the resurrection of nefarious bandit activities, if not properly addressed by security authorities and the state government, will result in an unprecedented food catastrophe in the state (Sardauna,2020). On the 16th of October, the President of the All Farmers Association of Nigeria (AFAN) outlined the current difficulties to achieving food security, which include the corona virus pandemic, flood catastrophes, drought in some areas, and insecurity, particularly banditry in the North West (FRCN, 2020).This study examine the effect of banditry on food production in Kankara Local government Area of Kastina state
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Insecurity from bandits is the most serious threat to Nigeria's agriculture economy. The bandits' continued terrorism and banditry activities in the northeast of Nigeria have had a significant impact on food production especially in kankara local government area of Kastina state. Farming activities are not only impossible to carry out in an insecure environment, but domestic agricultural production is also inhibited, farming communities are relocated, and access to regional markets is restricted. In addition, bandits have become a big menace to farming communities as a result of their frequent attacks and fatalities. Banditry attacks on these farming districts have made it difficult for farmers in these areas to go to their crops to cultivate or harvest. Aside from the physical assault on the farmers, the damage caused by the bandits' aggravates the pain of the defenseless farmers. The economic consequence is seen in the unabated rise in food commodity prices, shortage of specific food products, and acute food insecurity since places where food is planted or produced are no longer producing. This is because most farmers in the agriculturally famous communities in Kankara local government Area have abandoned their farms and moved to other regions in search of safety, leaving their farms fallow and un-harvested crops, posing a threat to the food production. As a result, the purpose of this study is to look into the effect of banditry on food production in Kankara local government Area of Kastina state.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of banditry on food production (A case study of Kankara local government Area)
1) To assess the level of activities of bandits towards food production in kastina
2) To explain the effects of banditry on food production in kankara local government area
3) To examine issues and trends of banditry and the dilemma of human security in northern Nigeria
4) Highlight the recent efforts of the government in tackling Banditry to improve food production in Kankara local government Area
5) Recommend measures towards tackling banditry to improve food Production in the Kankara local government Area.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1) What is the level of activities of bandits towards food production in kastina?
2) What is the effect of banditry on food production in kankara local government area?
3) What are the issues and trends of banditry and the dilemma of human security in northern Nigeria?
4) What are the recent efforts of the government in tackling Banditry to improve food production in Kankara local government Area?
5) What are measures towards tackling banditry to improve food Production in the Kankara local government Area?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
The research following hypothesis were tested:
H0: There is no significant effect of banditry on food production in kankara local government Area
H1: There is a significant effect of banditry on food production in kankara local government Area
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This research will add to the existing body of knowledge. Most significantly, it will bring to the attention of the government the urgent need for security officers to be stationed near farming areas that are vulnerable to attack. It will inform the Ministry of Agriculture on the effects of these attacks on food production, as well as the necessity to plan for the worst-case scenario if nothing is done. This research will also benefit persons from rural areas (particularly in the northern states) who are interested in farming. Finally, this study will act as a resource for other academics and provide space for future research.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study would cover the effect of banditry on food production (A case study of kankara local government Area of Kastina state)
1.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The researcher was faced with the following constraints in carrying out this study:
Time: The time within the researcher is too short to carry on the detail study on this topic.
Resources: Another constraint of the researcher is financial resources to carry on the detail study of this topic. Data: Another limitation to this study will be lack of data to make valid study on the research problem.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Farming: Farming is growing crops or keeping animals by people for food and raw materials.
Food insecurity: Food insecurity is measured as a household-level concept that refers to uncertain, insufficient, or unacceptable availability, access, or utilization of food.
Farming System: Farming system is an integrated set of activities that farmers perform in their farms under their resources and circumstances to maximize the productivity and net farm income on a sustainable basis.
Banditry: Outlaws commit banditry, which is a sort of organized crime including the threat or use of violence. A bandit is a person who engages in banditry and commits crimes such as extortion, robbery, and murder, either individually or in gangs.
FOOD PRODUCTION: Food production, whether at home or in the food industry, is the process of creating food by transforming raw materials into ready-to-eat food items.
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