1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Globally, insecurity phenomenon has, indeed, posed the greatest threat to the present world order and has been encapsulated in the nine-letter word: “Boko Haram”. Boko Haram may have existed in diverse ways in the decades; even centuries that had gone by without much threat to international security and global order, but the world of the twenty-first century appear to be witnessing a major scourge borne out of the phenomenon of Boko Haram. As noted by Nkwede (2013), the issue of security has remained topical and indeed constituted a serious course for concern not only to the private but also to public individuals in Nigeria. The security question has, in recent times, emerged as a key concept in Nigeria’s struggle for good governance, sustainable democracy and development. Apparently, the increasing spread of nefarious activities of Boko Haram sect in Nigeria and the destruction of lives and property is a growing concern that could not be wished away with a wave of hand (Alao. Atere, Alao, 2015 and Ogege, 2013). The effects of Boko Haram insurgency on the sustainable economic development in Nigeria and its implications on corporate existence of the country as well as its image internationally constitute the prime motivator of this paper. It is against this backdrop that the paper attempts to conceptualize the concept “Boko Haram”, its historicity, manifestations of Boko Haram insurgency, and its effects on the sustainable economic development in Nigeria. Indeed, the worldwide manifestation of insurgency has been evident in Africa, but also in Nigeria. With particular reference to Nigeria, the phenomenon has found expression in the emergence of Boko Haram insurgency (2001-date). Since its advent, the sectarian insurrection has destroyed vast disturbance withinthe country, particularly by “using explosives and firearms with ugly, fatal” consequences (Awake, 2006). The horrendous level of boko haram attacks in several elements of the country, going unpleasant consequences for the nation’s economy and its growth. to handle the threat to national security and combat the increasing waves of crime the centralized of African country within the 2013 budget createda large allocation to security, and also the national assembly passed the Anti-Terrorism Act in 2011(Ewetan, 2013). Despite these efforts, the amount of insurrection and insecurity within the country continues to be high, and a confirmation of this is often the low ranking of African country within the international Peace Index (GPI, 2012). Despite the over-plus of security measures taken to handle the discouraging challenges of insurrection and insecurity in African country, government efforts haven't made the required positive result. This has compelled the Nigerian government in recent time to request for foreign help from countries like USA, Israel, and EU countries to combat the rising waves of insurrection and insecurity. Amidst the deteriorating security state of affairs within the country, African country is additionally confronted with discouraging organic process challenges that create serious threat to property economic development. These organic process challenges embody endemic rural and concrete economic condition, high rate of state, exhausting youth state, low industrial output, unstable and deteriorating rate, high rate, inadequate physical and social infrastructure, terribly massive domestic debt, and rising stock of external debt (Ewetan, 2013). Some students in conceptualizing security placed stress on the absence of threats to peace, stability, national cohesion, political and socio-economic objectives of a rustic (Igbuzor, 2011; Oche, 2001; Nwanegbo and Odigbo, 2013). Therefore there's a general agreement within the modern literature that security is significant for national cohesion, peace and property development. It's so apparent that national security may be a requisite, sin qua non for economic process and development of any country (Oladeji and Folorunso, 2007). The areas laid low with the Boko Haram insurrection are empty of just about all economic activities. Within the intelligence agency there's an agreement that security isn't the absence of threats or security problems, however the existence of a sturdy mechanism to reply proactively to the challenges exhibit by these threats with advantage, expertise, and in real time. Political, economic and social insecurity of a rustic encompasses all development goals and problems being the foundation of the difficulty and also the answer. Addressing problems with insurrection is crucial so as to execute roaring development comes. As a goal, it believed that each country ought to aim to achieve a degree of security by protective its voters from structural violence, crime, and social insecurity. Indeed, while not the security of voters, all plans for development, whether or not economic, political or social, will fail. Boko Haram is a phenomenon that is bedevilling Borno State and it affects policies and development. Any nation striving towards development must reduce the frequency of crime to the barest minimum.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The emergence of Boko Haram insurgency has introduced a terrorist dimension, hitherto unknown, into the criminal space in Nigeria. Series of bombings have been carried out by the sect, as well as taking hostage of innocent citizens. Even the United Nations Building in Abuja was not spared in the bombing spree. In rich as well as poor countries, terrorism exerts a heavy toll on national economies. It is inevitable that the economic impact of terrorism would be more felt in unsophisticated mono-cultural low-income economies than they would be felt in highly advanced, diversified industrial economies. Therefore, the continued rise in terrorism activities in the country, if not checked, may result in greater investor apathy for the country and resulting in low inflow of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI), and would make institutional investors look for other stable economies to invest their money. On the state of the country, when people feel insecure, their appetite to invest, to buy or rent from the product of investment reduces; and that is why all over the world, any country that radiates an environment of insecurity naturally repels investment initiatives from both the international community and its own local investors. Hence, terrorism is a threat to the economic, political and social security of a nation and a major factor associated with underdevelopment; because it discourages both local and foreign investments, reduces the quality of life, destroys human and social capital, damages relationship between citizens and the states, thus undermining democracy, rule of law and the ability of the country to promote development (Adebayo, 2013). However, the researcher is analyzing implication of boko haram insurgency to sustainable economic development in Nigeria.
1.3. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The major aim of the study is to evaluate implication of Boko Haram insurgency to sustainable economic development. Other specific objectives are as follows;
1. To examine the level of Boko Haram activities in Borno State.
2. To identify the factors limiting the sustainable economic development of Nigeria.
3. To examine the effect of Boko Haram on the sustainable economic development of Nigeria.
4. To examine Boko Haram insurgency and its implication on the sustainable economic development in the country.
5. To examine the relationship between insurgency and sustainable economic development in Nigeria.
6. To recommend solutions to Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria.
1.4. RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. What is the level of Boko Haram activities in Borno State?
2. What are the factors limiting the sustainable economic development of Nigeria?
3. What are the effects of Boko Haram on the sustainable economic development of Nigeria?
4. What is Boko Haram insurgency and its implication on the sustainable economic development in the country?
5. What is the relationship between insurgency and sustainable economic development in Nigeria?
6. What are the recommended solutions to Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria?
1.5. RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
H01: Insurgency has no significant impact on sustainable economic development in Borno State.
H02: There is no significant relationship between insurgency and sustainable economic development in Borno State.
1.6. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The findings from this study will educate the government and the general public on the extent of damage done by the activities of the Boko Haram sect in Borno state and its effect on the sustainable economic development with a view of resolving the crisis. This research will also serve as a resource base to other scholars and researchers interested in carrying out further research in this field subsequently, if applied will go to an extent to provide new explanation to the topic.
1.7. SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study is restricted to implication of Boko-Haram insurgency to sustainable economic development in Borno state.
1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Implication: A possible future effect or result, something that is suggested without being said directly. The fact, state of being involved in or connected to something.
Insurgency: Is defined as an organized movement aimed at the overthrow or destruction of a constituted government through the use of subversion, espionage, terrorism and armed conflict. Insurgencies normally seek to overthrow the existing social order and reallocate power within the country.
Sustainable: Capable of being sustained. (Of economic development, energy sources, etc) capable of being maintained at a steady level without exhausting natural resources or causing severe ecological damage.
Economic: The theories, principles, and models that deal with how the market process works. It attempts to explain how wealth is created and distributed in communities, how people allocate resources that are scarce and have many alternative uses, and other such matters that arise in dealing with human wants and their satisfaction.
Development: The process of economic and social transformation that is based on complex cultural and environmental factors and their interactions.