1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Political leadership is an important notion in understanding political processes and consequences, but it is difficult to define. Political theory, history, psychology, and management studies are just a few of the disciplines that have contributed to the study of leadership. Political Leadership examines these fields' contributions, as well as the work of famous authors like Niccolo Machiavelli, Max Weber, and Robert Michels..
Scholars have expressed concern about the viability of developing and preserving Nigeria's democratic practices since its inception on May 29, 1999 (Abubakar, 2014; Ajayi & Ojo, 2014). The validity of these fears appears unquestionable in light of several unpalatable evidences that have characterized Nigeria's fourth republic, as well as the rise in antidemocratic actions perpetrated by political elites who are supposed to uphold and strengthen democratic principles, such as electoral malpractices, corruption, human rights violations, abuse of power or office, and so on (Ajayi & Ojo, 2014; Okafor & Okafor, 2018). It is important to note that every system of government has its own tenets and modes of operation; nonetheless, for the system's long-term viability and continuity, effort must be directed toward sustaining the qualities and tenets on which it thrives. It is consequently critical for leaders in any environment to preserve, sustain, and consolidate these ideas and values to the extent that they are in the public good. Given the intimate nexus between leadership, democratic consolidation, and a nation's progress, it is the responsibility of the leadership in every democratic environment to take efforts aimed at preserving democracy's survival. However, democratic consolidation is clearly one of the Nigerian State's stumbling blocks in the Fourth Republic (Okafor & Okafor, 2018). It is important to emphasize, however, that man is intrinsically unique, resulting in diverse perspectives and perceptions on situations. As a result, different men have varied demands from democracy, as well as different perspectives on what democracy should include. Thus, when considering the tenets of democracy, it is clear that the concept of democracy is consistent with some general characteristics, such as the rule of law, a credible electoral process, freedom of information, liberty, voting and being voted for, transparency, accountability, active political processes, and regular free, fair, and peaceful elections, among others.
Consolidating democracy is frequently just as difficult as founding it. Nigeria's democratic journey has been marred by setbacks at various points since independence. Over the course of her fifty-four years of “flag” independence, democratic administration has become entangled on several times, paving the door for twenty-nine years of military control. The most obvious source of the lack of direction, unity, and cohesiveness essential for democratic survival and national progress is the country's lack of competent leadership. Effective leadership has been an essential component for the unification and growth of nation governments throughout history. Some of the most enduring political works, such as Machiavelli's Prince and Plato's Republic, were largely devoted to resolving leadership issues. Nigeria's leadership crisis may be traced back to the country's colonial history. Because the colonial authority did not want to incur the costs and rigor of forming a new state, indirect rule was adopted. As a result, distinct nationalities of the previously polyglot state continue to pursue centrifugal goals. The war for liberation was fought with split interests as a corollary to the colonial masters' premise of divided and rule in the land. Tribal leaders were divided on when and how to remove the colonial ruler for various reasons prior to independence. Devolution of power (the development of state and local governments), federal character, and the derivation principle, among other things, have been implemented in order to engage the support of all constituent regions of the country in the construction of a nation. Tribe feelings, on the other hand, remain powerful, and tribal leadership, such as that of Awolowo in the West, Azikiwe in the East, Ahamadu Bello in the North, and much later Clark in the South-South, is what we have in place of national leaders. As is to be expected, tribal leaders owe their leadership positions to their tribe's members and hence maintain their positions through a neo-patrimonial system. As a result, pre-bendal politics has become the norm in the United States.
The work of Yagboyaju and Akinola (2019) exposes that Nigeria's political leaders have strayed from the reasons they were elected or appointed to pursue greed, arrogance, corruption, godfatherism, party politics, ethnicity, and other vices. It is widely believed that political leaders have achieved nothing major since the dawn of democracy till now, and that this has slowed Nigeria's progress. There is also the idea that Nigeria is governed by civilians rather than democracy. Promoting democracy and preserving its survival, on the other hand, is equivalent to promoting social good, making the role of leadership and other variables crucial in the long-term survival of democracy and progress. Most Nigerians had high aspirations when democracy arrived in the country, owing to the positive elements that come with democratic processes, such as good governance, rule of law, progress, and accountability, to name a few. In light of this, the purpose of this study was to look into the function and importance of political leadership in the maintenance and consolidation of democracy in Nigeria. It dismantled the nature and substance of Nigerian political leadership, as well as its efforts to maintain or relegate democratic practice in the country. Therefore the study centers on political leadership and challenges of Democratic consolidation in Nigeria (2011-2019).
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Any examination of Nigeria's political leadership and democratic consolidation must begin with the issues and dilemmas that have developed during the country's democratic transition from independence to the Fourth Republic. The introduction of democracy has resulted in a slew of demands and agitations, prompting some to fear that the system would be overrun. Lack of good political leaders to steer the country forward is one of the primary difficulties of the contemporary democratic regime. Other issues include corruption, lack of government accountability, and so on. The political institutions that make up Nigeria's nascent democracy are the primary source of concern. The importance of political institutions and leaders cannot be emphasized because they form the structural foundations of a democracy and are essential to its long-term survival and stability effective and properly functioning institutions structure behavior in stable and predictable patterns, reducing uncertainty over role functions; tend to perform well even in the face of economic adversity; produce more workable and sound public policies; and, as a result of the foregoing, will go a long way to reducing the likelihood of military incumbency. Therefore the study centers on political leadership and challenges of Democratic consolidation in Nigeria (2011-2019).
1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The main aim of this study is to examine political leadership and challenges of Democratic consolidation in Nigeria (2011-2019). The specific objectives of this study were to:
1) To examine factors that promotes democratic consolidating in the Fourth republic in Nigeria
2) To examine the impact of impact of political leadership on democratic consolidation in Nigeria
3) To examine the relationship between political leadership and democratic consolidation in Nigeria
4) To examine the challenges of political leadership and democratic consolidation in Nigeria
5) To recommend ways of promoting democratic consolidation and sustainability in Nigeria
1.4. RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1) What are factors that promote democratic consolidating in the Fourth republic in Nigeria?
2) What is the impact of impact of political leadership on democratic consolidation in Nigeria?
3) What is the relationship between political leadership and democratic consolidation in Nigeria?
4) What are the challenges of political leadership and democratic consolidation in Nigeria?
5) What are the ways of promoting democratic consolidation and sustainability in Nigeria?
1.5. RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
H0: There is no significant impact of political leadership on democratic consolidation in Nigeria
H1: There is a significant impact of political leadership on democratic consolidation in Nigeria
H0: There is no significant relationship between political leadership and democratic consolidation in Nigeria
H1: There is a significant relationship between political leadership and democratic consolidation in Nigeria
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Political parties will benefit from the findings of this study in that the results obtained revealed the situation on the ground on the matters pertaining to political leadership and democratic consolidation were brought to light. This information will be useful in the formulation of policies and the improvement of the already set policies, towards the improvement governance.
This study is significant because of its possible benefits to the political parties, government administrators, the students and all stake holders in Nigeria.
1.7. SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study is restricted to political leadership and challenges of Democratic consolidation in Nigeria(2011-2019).
1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.9 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
Political Leadership: Political leadership implies both a political and operational dimension. Strong and structured political support, with ministers determining the overall direction of the Strategy, taking ownership and responsibility, aligning policies and funds, and providing the resources and status for decision making, is crucial.
Democracy: Democracy is a form of government in which the people have the authority to deliberate and decide legislation, or to choose governing officials to do so
Democratic consolidation: Democratic consolidation is the process by which a new democracy matures, in a way that it becomes unlikely to revert to authoritarianism without an external shock, and is regarded as the only available system of government within a country
Political parties: Political parties are collective entities that organize competitions for political offices. The members of a political party contest elections under a shared label. In a narrow definition, a political party can be thought of as just the group of candidates who run for office under a party label
Can't find what you are looking for? Hire An Eduproject Writer To Work On Your Topic or Call 0704-692-9508.
Proceed to Hire a Writer »