1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Electoral malpractices are one of the negative pigments affecting the effective performance of our political office holders. Election is the activity through which our political office holders are elected into different political office in our country. These offices include the office of the president, governors, senators, house of assembly both in the federal, state and local government levels. Due to the important role which elections plays, its usefulness cannot be overemphasized in modern day democratic dispensation, but however, some politicians do not play polities according to the rules and regulations guiding elections in Nigeria, nowadays politician see elections as a “do or die affair”. This act leads to bribery, and cheating in the electoral system, and to them, this is the shortest way to get into power, because of the result of electoral malpractices or misconducts. People who are not qualified or know little or nothing about leadership, find their way into power in Nigeria particularly in Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area to be specified. This act has done no good to the average Nigerian today. Unequaled person find their way into government with little or known respect for the needs, demands and interest of the common citizen. This could be attributed to that process to power without following the due process. They tend to be self seeking and only aim to better their lots.
Today, presently Nigeria still remains under developed in West Africa furthermore. It is a theatre of endless conflict civil strafe and gross human right abuse, it is fair to say that what the country have been able to pass from one generation to another includes poverty, unemployment, system corruption, nepotism, tribalism to mention but a few; today the fight or war against electoral or election malpractices have became the fight to all, be and for all.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Despite the measure taken by various groups, individual and non government organizations (NGOs) to educate the Nigeria population on the effects of electoral (misconducts) malpractices on the effectiveness of political office holders, the rate of electoral malpractice is still on the increase, this can be attributed to gross mis-educated, some people are still the effect of electoral malpractice. This is one of the reasons why electorates still, collect bribe to vote for and also vote for candidate because they have collected bribe from which could be in cash, or items like salts, rice, magi etc. this is a clear indication that the electorates still lack some basic facts about the effects of electoral malpractice and therefore the fundamental solution to this national problem is massive electoral education of the general electorates.
This research is therefore to examine some of the effect of electoral malpractice on the performance of political office holders in Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area of Edo State.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of this study is to provide electorates with knowledge to guide against electoral (misconduct) malpractice and in a way proffer solutions to the problems of election in Nigeria in general and Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area in particular.
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The research work would be restricted to the people living (electorates) in Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area, of Edo State. They include:
Abiokunla Ward 1 and 2, Iyoba Ward
Iyogbe Ward 1 and 2 Iyoba Ward
1.6 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following research questions have been formulated to guide the study.
Does electoral misconduct affects the performances of political offices holders?
Does the role electorate’s play increase the rate of electoral malpractice?
Does illiteracy play any role in the increasing rate of electoral misconducts?
Does the personality of an individual play any role in the reduction or increase of electoral malpractices?
Does parental influence affect the choice of electorates during elections?
1.7 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The knowledge of the effects of electoral malpractice would be beneficial to the general population (electorate) in Nigeria and Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area in particular. It is the joy of the researcher that any persons that have the opportunity to read this work will be further be enlightened to the effects of electoral malpractices. The researcher also feels that this study will be of benefit to those adult who have come up to the age of voting as stipulated by the constitution of Nigeria; furthermore, the result of the findings will be of help to the independent electoral commission, students, parents and other related electoral bodies.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
The word electoral is derived from the word electorate. An electorate is a body of people allowed to vote in an election.
Malpractice: A wrongful act that the actor had no right to do, improper professional conduct, he charged them with electoral malpractice.
Corruption: Mean dishonest or illegal behavior by officials of people in position of power especially when they accept money in exchange for doing things for someone.
Political Office Holders: These are people who hold political office especially through politics e.g. Members of House of Representatives, House of Assemble, Local Government Chairman, Governors, etc.
However, a definition of electoral integrity is outlined on the basis of democratic theory; following this electoral malpractice is define as the manipulation of electoral processes and outcomes so as to substitute personal or partisan benefit for the public interest.
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