1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The media as a secondary agent of socialization has to a very large extent influenced the lives of many cutting across different socio-cultural and economic status. Its role in the lives of people and especially young people cannot be overemphasized. This is supported by Iorza (2014) who said that “youths are the most vulnerable victims of cultural imperialism. Socialization and culture are two sides of the same coin and therefore, they remain inextricably linked”. William (2008), and Devadas and Ravi (2013) defined culture as an ongoing integral part of the existence of every society and is learned, taught transmitted from one generation to another using varying agents of socialization. Suffice here to say that no society exists without a way of life exclusive to their existence, which inevitably affects their interactional process both internally and externally. The interactional process of members of a society culminates into a value system for them which imply their views of the world. Values of people could refer to perceptions on worthy or unworthy matter; liked or disliked attribute and among other elements of the world view. When a particular world view is held and defined by a cultural group over a period of time, it evolves into cultural value and grows to become a legacy. Thus, against the backdrop, Kluckhohn as cited in Daramola (2005) states that “culture is a social legacy that an individual acquires from his group, which comprises of values, customs, beliefs, language, religion, technology, emotional patterns, behavioural patterns and among many other socio-cultural symbols”. Cultural accumulation has abated cultural transfer, which has inadvertently extinct several indigenous cultural values and legacy of people, as stated by Jekayinka (2013) that culture includes the total repertoire of human action which is socially transmitted from generation to another. The photo-electric speed of this effect has been made lush by the advent of visualization of motion of pictures. Its orgy has posed different meaning to people as to whether to accept or deny television programmes as a blessing to their cultural values, especially in Africa, following the behavioural patterns of its youth populace. It is to this end that Signorielli and Kahlenberg (2013) opined that “the television is the first centralized cultural influence to permeate both the initial and final years of life as well as the years between”. Thus, Television Programmes is viewed and argued by several scholars as a measure to foster imperialism and tagged “a model of cultural imperialism”. Therefore, the acceptable fact of the Nigerian culture fading out as a result of the acceptance and adaptation of the modernist’s solution to perceived under-civilization and underdevelopment as cited in (Obiora, 2013) quintessence’s attributes of cultural imperialism.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Televisions programmes shown via different stations and channels are geared toward education, entertainment, and information. This is largely held as a modus operandi guiding transmission of TV programmes. To a very large extent the three pillars of media have been achieved, as they are important measures to check-mate deploring conditions of the human mind at different socio-cultural phase. It is no doubt that the coming of TV stations into regional Nigeria in 1959 through 1961, and the NTA in 1976 had political motives (Obono & Madu, 2010). However, it is believed that they played crucial roles in enabling an educated community especially through their functional political literacy and cultural promotional programmes. Gradually, the deregulation of the sector in 1992 later led to an influx of private TV stations and the advent of foreign views through cable networks, and still in the act of educating, entertaining and informing viewers, they delivered laudable under certain legislations to protect the Nigerian Cultural image (Nnabuko & Anatsui, 2012). It is a trend in human existence that rules are gradually broken or bent. It was, therefore, no exception in the media as a systematic permeation of Western values gradually infiltrated the stage as against the perceived not to be true crude Nigerian cultural civilization. Taking the centre stage of motion pictures in Nigeria, the quest for indigenous cultural TV programmes started fading into the abyss with a plethora of western television programs gracing the screens of Nigerian homes. The exponential increase of cable networks in 2015 as cited in Page and Crawley (2010) largely influenced the perceptions of young adults who are said to be the highest viewers of TV programmes. This became obvious in their behavioural conducts in terms of dressing, eating habits, greeting styles, professional pursuits, make-ups, attitudinal relational patterns and among other relatives. Thus, a conflict aroused between indigenous Nigerian cultures and televised western values. Parents and caregivers became embittered over the new lead of life of youths; quarrels ensued at several Nigerian homes and the centre could no longer hold again. This observed scene gradually metamorphosed into a scenario of conflict-seeking resolve with a question at the beck and call of Nigerians—where is our cultural heritage? It is in this vein that this research work seeks to understand the degree of influence, Television broadcasting has made on Nigerian culture, taking a study of the television stations in Enugu Metropolis.
1.3AIMS OF THE STUDY
The major purpose of this study is to examine influence of television broadcasting in the promotion of culture. Other general objectives of the study are:
1. To examine the extent Television broadcasting promotes Nigeria’s cultural values.
2. To determine the hope of Nigerian cultural values in the light of sustainability.
3. To examine the influence of television broadcasting on the culture of Nigeria.
4. To examine how television as a channel of mass communication can be used to promote Nigerian cultural values.
5. To examine the relationship between television broadcasting and the promotion of Nigerian culture.
6. To examine the challenges that is facing television stations in producing culture-based programmes.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. What extent does Television broadcasting in Nigeria promotes Nigeria’s cultural values?
2. What is the hope of Nigerian cultural values in the light of sustainability?
3. How does television broadcasting influence the culture of Nigeria?
4. How can television as a channel of mass communication be used to promote Nigerian cultural values?
5. What is the relationship between television broadcasting and the promotion of Nigerian culture?
6. What are the challenges facing television stations in producing culture-based programmes?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
H01: There is no influence of television broadcasting on the culture of Nigeria.
H02: There is no significant relationship between television broadcasting and the promotion of Nigerian culture.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
(a) The research will help in propagating a domestication of the African/Nigerian culture characterized with good neighbourliness, respect for elders, virtuousness, communal living and collectivism.
(b) It will enable the government and policy makers especially National Film and Video Censors Board and National Broadcasting Commission to put adequate measures in place to check the influx of western television programmes into Nigeria.
(c) It will help remove the idea of unhealthily imitating western cultures or ways of life in Nigeria.
(d) The research will help improve media contextualization in protecting the culture of a people.
1.7SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study is based on influence of television broadcasting in the promotion of culture: Case study of two prominent televisions broadcasting stations in Enugu metropolis.
1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Television: It is an electronic device that exudes both visual and audio clips and sounds respectively.
Television Programmes: They are packaged acts that could be educating, entertaining or informative, transmitted for view through the television.
Culture: This is the way people live and coordinate their lives as individuals and as members of a society. They include language, religion, dress code etc.
Mass Media: Obasanjo and Babogunje (1992) refer to mass media as "an agency, modem or traditional that operates for the articulation and dissemination of ideas, and information generally with intent to influence or control an audience or institutions that constitute power and authority". Mass media are those channels or vehicles through which information, education, entertainment or general people- oriented messages are conveyed to the masses.
Media: Refers to various channels of communication through which information (messages) are conveyed to audiences. They are the vehicles which transmit messages from the sender (encoder) to the receiver (decoder). Different professionals in the field of communication have proffered various definitions of media. Nwosu (1990) refers to traditional rural communication media as gongs, town criers, drums, market and village for rituals and festivals.
Cultural Value: This is a value within the culture of a particular people.