TABLE OF CONENTS
TITLE PAGE i
TABLE OF CONENTS vii
CHAPTER ONE 1
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY 1
1.1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 5
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY 7
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS 8
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY 9
1.6 SCOPE OF STUDY 10
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS 10
CHAPTER TWO 13
LITERATURE REVIEW 13
2.1 INTRODUCTION 13
2.2 THEORITICAL FRAMEWORK 16
2.3 CONSTRAINTS ON THE MASS MEDIA IN NIGERIA 22
2.4 MEDIA OWNERSHIP AND CONTROL 28
2.5 MASS MEDIA ROLE IN CONSOLIDATING DEMOCRACY IN NIGERIAN 31
2.6 CHALLENGES OF MASS MEDIA IN CONSOLIDATING DEMOCRACY IN NIGERIA 38
2.7 SUMMARY OF THE REVIEW 45
CHAPTER THREE 47
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 47
3.1 INTRODUCTION 47
3.2 RESEARCH DESIGN 47
3.3 THE POPULATION OF THE STUDY 48
3.4 SAMPLE/SAMPLING TECHIQUE 49
3.5 INSTRUMENT OF DATA COLLECTION 49
3.6 VALIDITY/RELIABILITY OF THE INSTRUMENT 50
3.7 ADMINISTRATION OF THE INSTRUMENT 50
3.8 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS 51
CHAPTER FOUR 52
DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION 52
4.1 INTRODUCTION 52
4.2 DATA PRESENTATION/ANALYSIS 52
4.3 DISCUSSION AND FINDINGS 63
CHAPTER FIVE 65
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 65
5.1 SUMMARY 65
5.2 CONCLUSION 69
3.5 RECOMMENDATIONS 72
CHAPTER ONE BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY 1.1 INTRODUCTION
The Mass Media are often referred to as the fourth branch of government because of the power they wield and the oversight function they exercise. The media’s key role in democratic governance has been recognized since the late 17th century, and remains a fundamental principle of modern day democratic theory and practice.
The press serves as “locomotive” for social engineering and shapes public opinion, but they are in turn influenced and manipulated by different interest groups in the society. The media can promote democracy by among other things, educating voters, protecting human rights, promoting tolerance among various social groups, and ensuring that government are transparent and accountable. This study examines the role of the media in the substance in Nigeria during the period 1999 – 2017.
This study examines the complex and multi-dimensional linkages among the media, democracy, good governance and peaceful development. The media however, can play anti-democratic roles as well. They can sow fear, division and violence. Instead of promoting democracy, they can contribute to democratic decay.
The study x-rays the functions of the Mass Media/Press against the background of the theoretical framework of the study, which was revived from the 1999 Nigerian constitution, the functionalist theory and the social responsibility theory. The study discuss some of the fundamental ethnical principles under pining the functions of the Mass Media against the background of selected incidents of government repression of the media and how fourth estates of the realm has survived the onslaught. The thesis of this study is that although media practitioners contribute immensely to midwife and sustain democracy, they are hardly appreciated by government in terms of policy frameworks and pragmatic actions. The study recommends the swift passage of the Freedom of Information (FOI) Bill to give journalist unimpeded access to information. In the final analysis, it is advised that in spite of the dog role to deepen democracy and the rule of law in Nigeria.
The study explains the constraints that hobble the media’s ability to play a positive role in new democracies. Monopolistic ownership and stringent government controls are among those constraints. But the market and the race among media firms for audience and market share can degrade the quality of media reporting as well. In addition, unethical journalistic practices and the use of media organizations by various vested and sometimes, xenophobic, interest contributes to the media’s inability to fulfill their democratic function.
The Nigeria media have been very vocal, vibrant and critical of government policies. The Press exposes conspicuous cases of executive high handedness, mismanagement and mal-performance. Some people also finger the Nigerians Press for escalating tension and instigating military intervention in politics, Uyo (2000:pp3-6) posits that while the media fight to educate the public government officials most often insist on het use of discretion in deciding what measure doses of information the public should know. Besides, the Nigeria federation is fraught with structural abnormalities, which have culminated in inter and intra party federation is fraught with structural abnormalities, which have culminated in inter and intra party struggles for power, lopsided fiscal federalism, resource control and executive legislative crisis.
The study looks at the variety of ways in which the various media have been used to support democracy and development. The media, for example, have exposed malfeasance in high office, resulting in the resignation or to applying of heads of state and in the enactment of governance reforms. In addition, in many new and restored democracies, the media have contributed to public education and enlightenment, reconciliation among warring social groups, and to initiating much – needed political and social reforms. The study ends with a list recommendations that will help create an enabling environment for the media and ensure that they make a positive contribution to democratic development.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
It is now clear that democracy is a philosophy that is based on the aforementioned principles and features. It has the capacity to ensure popular participation, freedom of political action and to draw upon the talent of the greatest number of members of a polity for the promotion and satisfaction of common interests. Basically, inclusion is power means collusion in its benefit.
However, the principles and the benefits to democracy cannot be attained and have not being attained anywhere in the world without the power and roles of the Press. In other words, the role of the Press in democracy cannot be over emphasized. Any attempt to promote democracy must start with the education of the people, so that they can appreciate the choice before then and acquire the ability and character to behave rationally and participate actively in the process of governance. Without education, people cannot understand the essence of democracy and general issue of public interest and in such a situation it would be presumptions to expect the people to exercise independent judgment or tolerate others point of view and political choice or decision. This is where the Press comes into democracy and that is why democracy cannot be operated from Press.
Democracy involves a responsibly understanding of rights and obligations by the people, in every situation and also involves the appreciation of the nature and dimensions of issues to be decided. The understanding and appreciation process are done by the Press in any democratic setting. But the ability of the Press to function in broadcasting the base of information showing and in democratizing public establishment particularly in Nigeria.
In other needs, it is already established that, the Press has a profound effect on the thinking of the people, at least. Bernard Cohen had said that the Press may not be successful much of the time in telling people what to think, but it is stunningly successful in telling its leaders “what to think about”, but the question of how the Nigeria Press have been able to show the civil society the light to follow towards a proper functioning democracy still remain unanswered empirically.
Therefore, this study is set out to find out what really impacts the Nigeria Press in particular has had in entrenching and sustaining democracy in Nigeria form 1999 – 2017. The study shall be by this endeavour, find out how much effort has been made by the Press to strengthen the resolving of these forces and institutions that are designed or oriented towards the sustenance of democracy.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of the study is therefore to;
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following questions shall help in solving the investigation of the work.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study shall be immense benefit to the society as a whole. It will be beneficial particularly to the Nigeria furnished, by affording the knowledge of how they have fared amice in dependence on the enthronement and sustenance of democracy in Nigeria. The study shall let them know the true position in the democracy struggle in Nigeria and shall let them know how well or otherwise they have performed then expected roles in the democracy struggle. The study shall open up to the journalism the constant hazards and obstacle that have impended or hinder the performance of their roles in enthronement of democracy in Nigeria and shall give back light on how to remove the constraints. Another major benefactor are its official it would also afford these group of people the knowledge of how they helped or hindered the Press in performing its expected roles in democratic struggle. Therefore the study shall be a source of aspiration for change in their attitude towards Press and their roles in a democratic dispensation.
1.6 SCOPE OF STUDY
The scope of the research focuses on the analysis of the contribution of the Mass Media in sustaining democracy in Nigeria with specific focus on the period of 1999 – 2017, since it is difficult to study all Mass Media in Nigeria due to time, cost and other reason. Availability of material resources also constituted on hindrance to a wider scope of studies, hence, the restriction to the area mentioned.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
DEMOCRACY: A government of the people, by the people and for the people.
ROLE: The degree to which somebody/something is involved in a situation or an activity and the effect that they have on it.
POLITICAL: This can be defined as the use of democratic power in ruling the citizen of any democratic setting.
DEVELOPMENT: This is the act of creating new ideas for the growth of the particular situation or event.
MEDIA: A way of communicating information or news to people.
POLITICS: The activities involves in getting and using power in public life and being able to influence decision that effect a country or a society.
ELECTION: This is the process through which voters choose their representative and express their preference for the way that they will be governed.
BALLOT: Is a kind of voting method by which voters makes use of ballot papers in marking the name of their choice of candidate, which is dropped in a ballot box, that is counted manually.
ADMINISTRATION: The management or direction of the affairs of a business government etc.
PRESS: They are people who writers reports for radio, television of Newspaper.
ORAL CULTURE: Undocumented ways of life and behaviour of a people.
STATE: Can be defined as a group of people who occupy definite territory and have a sovereign government.
MEDIUM: A channel through which information is transmitted to the people.
EDITORIAL: This is an article in a newspaper giving the people’s opinion on a matter rather than reporting information. It is usually done by the editor.
JOURANLIST: This is an individual who writes reports for the newspapers, radio and television.
NEWS: This refers to the presentation of information in timely manner and in the way of would be interested to its audience.