1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Adult education is an inevitable instrument for the achievement of growth and development. In the 21st century, it has become associated with every life-long learning initiative for the adults. Adult education is all-embracing as it brings about changes in information, knowledge, understanding or skill, appreciation and attitude. It enables individuals to become more useful to their society socially, economically, morally and politically (Asojo, 2001) the importance of adult education in every society cannot be over-emphasized. It is an indispensable aspect of education that enables an adult to live well and equally participate actively in the affairs that concerns him. Nzeneri (2008) defined adult education as any form of education (formal, informal or non-formal) given to adults based on their felt social, economic, political and cultural needs to enable them adjust fully to life challenges. Adult education has come to be associated with the everyday life activities of adults; it has grown to encompass literacy programmes, remediation and retraining programmes. The National Policy on Education (2004) stated the objectives of Adult and Non-formal Education as the provision of functional literacy and continuing education for the adults and youths; functional and remedial education for the young drop-outs; further education for different categories of completers of formal schools; in-service, on-the-job, vocational and professional training for different categories of workers and the necessary aesthetic, cultural and civic education for public enlightenment. The achievement of the aforementioned objectives depends on the quality of the adult education instructors. Through Nigerian’s participation in various international meetings and conferences where literacy is discussed as a right, the country now recognizes literacy both as a human right in itself and as a crucial instrument for the pursuit of other rights. Since about 1843 when literacy education in Nigeria was pioneered by Muslim and Christian missionaries, the country has left no stone on turned in her efforts to make her citizens literate. Following Nigeria’s independence in 1960 literacy efforts in the country received a boost when UNESCO supported the establishment of an Adult literacy Institute in Nigeria, specifically in Ibadan in 1965. In 2012 the Nigeria National Council for Adult Education (NNCAE) was set up; as a voluntary organization charged with the primary role of promoting adult literacy education. A great wind of change came in 2007 when the Federal military government established the National Commission for Mass Literacy, Adult and Non-formal Education which is responsible for the organization, monitoring and assessment of adult literacy practices in the country. For comprehensive coverage, the Commission had to spread its dragnet of activities nation-wide with offices in the six geo-political zones of the country, the 36 states and all the 774 local government areas. Furthermore, co-ordination and supervision of literacy classes at the grass root level are undertaken by the local adult education officers, supervisors and literacy instructors. In addition to above institutional and structural arrangements, government’s efforts are complemented by Non-governmental organizations including some international partners all of which constitute stakeholders in the management of one form of adult literacy education or the other. Yet, illiteracy continues to be a significant problem in Nigeria, up to the point of the country belonging to the E-9 countries which account for 75% of the world’s over one billion illiterates. Specifically, according to the 2008 Global Monitoring Report, the most recent data for Nigeria shows an adult literacy rate of 69% (78% for men and 60 for women) or an adult illiteracy rate of 31%. In fairness, one is constrained to posit that the literacy efforts attempted in Nigeria so far have not produced the desired results and millions of people are still being denied access to literacy because of lack of effective education policies. Consequently, the main focus of this paper was to examine manage structures for enhancing teaching and learning in adult literacy programmes in terms of planning, organizing and controlling functions in order to achieve predetermined objectives of eradicating illiteracy in Nigeria.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Managing adult learning requires managers who possess good managerial skills/competencies. An educational system is effective to the extent it makes use of the available resources to achieve its stated aims and objectives. The major objective of every school system irrespective of the level of education is to provide high quality education for learners (Whawo, 2014). The resources needed to provide this high quality education include financial as well as human and material assets (Carrim & Shalem, 2009). School effectiveness researchers acknowledge the diverse educational aims of acquiring subject knowledge, skills, values and attitude necessary for the educational context and for future participation in the wider society (Lockheed & Verspoor, 2007; UNESCO, 2007). Apart from the family, school is the principal agent of socialization through which children get an academic education and learn many cultural codes (Brander et al., 1995; Ezewu, 1983). In addition, the success of any educational system no doubt depends on the available methodological competence, educational qualification level, and the administrative machinery established for its implementation. In recognition of this fact, therefore, professionalism is given a major emphasis in all teaching activities. Consequently, adult education programmes in the Nigeria suffers from learners’ low enrolment, high incidence of dropouts and generally, poor teaching/learning outcomes. The problem of this study therefore, is to determine the management structures for enhancing teaching and learning in adult literacy centres.
1.3AIMS OF THE STUDY
The major purpose of this study is to examine the management structures for enhancing teaching and learning in adult literacy centres. Other general objectives of the study are:
1. To examine the nature of Adult Education in Nigeria.
2. To examine the management structures in enhancing teaching and learning in adult literacy centres.
3. To examine the effect of management structures on teaching and learning in adult literacy centres.
4. To examine the challenges in managing adult literacy centres.
5. To examine the relationship between the management structures and effective teaching and learning in adult literacy centres.
6. To suggest ways for improving on good managerial structures in adult literacy centres in Nigeria.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. What is the nature of Adult Education in Nigeria?
2. What are the management structures in enhancing teaching and learning in adult literacy centres?
3. What are the effect of management structures on teaching and learning in adult literacy centres?
4. What are the challenges in managing adult literacy centres?
5. What is the relationship between the management structures and effective teaching and learning in adult literacy centres?
6. What are the ways for improving on good managerial structures in adult literacy centres in Nigeria?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
H0: There is no effect of management structures on teaching and learning in adult literacy centres.
H1: There is a significant effect of management structures on teaching and learning in adult literacy centres.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The findings of this study will be of great importance to adult education planners, administrators, stakeholders, instructors, government, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), future researchers, adult learners and the society at large. It will equip adult education planners, administrators and stakeholders in the adult education sector with relevant information on the extent to which management structures can enhance teaching and learning in the literacy centres, development of instructional objectives and methods of evaluation hinder their educational outcome. It will equally provide them with information on the strategies for enhancing the managerial competencies in their teaching/learning endeavours, which will result to effective planning and implementation of adult education programmes. It will also provide them with useful database for further research on how to achieve the goal of effective adult education teaching/learning processes. The findings of this study will provide the government, NGOs and future researchers with useful data on how management structures can enhance teaching and learning in the literacy centres. It will equally provide them with useful information on the strategies for enhancing effective teaching/learning processes in the adult learning centres.
1.7SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study is based on management structure for enhancing teaching in adult literacy centres in Lokoja L.G.A, Kogi state.
1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Management: Is the organization and coordination of the activities of a business in order to achieve defined objectives. The directors and managers have the power and responsibility to make decisions and oversee an enterprise. The size of management can range from one person in a small organization to hundreds or thousands of managers in diverse institutions.
Teaching: Teaching is the process of attending to people’s needs, experiences and feelings, and making specific interventions to help them learn particular things.
Learning: Is the process of acquiring new or modifying existing knowledge, behaviours, skills, values, or preferences.
Literacy: Is traditionally meant as the ability to read and write. The modern term's meaning has been expanded to include the ability to use language, numbers, images, computers, and other basic means to understand, communicate, gain useful knowledge, solve mathematical problems and use the dominant symbol systems of a culture.