1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Islam is often seen as restrictive in terms of women participation in social and economic activities outside their home. In western societies, the mere mention of “women and Islam” triggers a chain of thought, which includes buzzwords like “veiling, oppression and subjection.” Islam appears to be a patriarchal, authoritarian system, which is endured by women, but in which they have no say. Barbara and Creevey argue that “throughout West Africa, Islam has had the greatest impact on women’s lives among those who were converted earliest and who were relatively isolated for centuries thereafter from with other culture.” 1 Suggest that the more longer Islam is present the more it will annihilate pre-Islamic customs favourable to women and the more subordinated women will become. To the contrary, many Muslim scholars tend to dismiss this claim and deny that Islamic tenets on women are oppressive. They counter-pose the indignity women are suffering in societies of other regions with the advancement of women, as permitted in Islam and conclude that Islam lays their true liberation. Amina Wadud denies the claim that Islam established a patriarchal society or female subordination. One of the argument pointed out was that long before other civilizations revolved the issue of whether or not women had souls or should be entitled to basic rights, Islam gave rights and freedoms that were considered revolutionary to women more than hundred years ago. Islam as a religion has a comprehensive package of rights for women which includes the right to enter into contracts and legal agreements; the right to earn an income and dispose her property as she wishes, the right to express her opinions on all issues private or public; the right to education; the right to inherit and be inherited by her next of kin; the right to contribute to the development of the society in all spheres. It has become incontrovertible and thoroughly documented that in gender relations; women occupy an inferior position all over the world. The results of a recent Gallop poll on equality between the sexes, broadcast on the Cable News Network (CNN) show that "there is nowhere in the world where women are considered to be equal to men" (CNN, 2002). Referring to findings from contemporary research on the condition of women, Abati (2002) says: Based on concerted research the conclusion has long been reached that women are de-centred, de-natured sub-species of humanity; harassed by culture, intimated by politics and subsumed in helplessly patrilineal and patriarchal structures which pamper the male ego. The 'decentralization' or marginalization of women and their disadvantaged position are at the root of the global movement for the empowerment of women, or 'the women agenda'. Generally characterized by various indices of underdevelopment, women in countries like Nigeria are more desperately in need of empowerment than their counterparts in other parts of the world. In Nigeria, for instance, the forces which relegate women to the background are formidable. They include poverty, illiteracy, religious and cultural prejudices and, in particular, male chauvinistic tendencies manifested in diverse patrilineal and patriarchal practices against women (Abati 2002, Kukah 2002; Okunna 2008) and the elimination of stereotypical and negative images of women which shape public opinion and attitudes towards women and undermine society's confidence in them. Of particular importance in this regard is the need to improve the portrayal of women in the communication media or film industries which are powerful vehicles for moulding public opinion and determining people's perception of social reality. Cognizant of this power of the media, the Platform for Action adopted at the Fourth World Conference on Women (Beijing, 2000) highlights the communication media as a 'critical area of concern' - "one of the ten major obstacles to women's progress, and an area in which extensive strategic action must be taken if equality is to become a reality" (Gallagher, 2000). With this recognition of the communication media as a critical area of concern in women's role, it becomes really worrisome that the media in Nigeria are still dominated by stereotyped portrayal of gender relations and negative images of women. A good example is the portrayal of women in home video films, a medium which has taken the Nigerian media scene by storm in recent times. The explosion in the number of local video films is truly astounding. As Aihe (2002) points out, conservative estimates indicate that at least one video film enters the market every week. According to him, "The result is that in a single year since the past three years, more than three hundred local films have been pumped into the Nigerian market." Among people who are sympathetic towards the struggle for women's role in the film, this proliferation and the popularity of these films have heightened fears that the little gain that might have been made in this struggle is being eroded by the internalization of the negative images of women by the large audience of local home video films.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
With this recognition of the communication media as a critical area of concern in women's role in the film industry, it becomes really worrisome that the media in Nigeria are still dominated by stereotyped portrayal of gender relations and negative images of women. A good example is the portrayal of women in home video films, a medium which has taken the Nigerian media scene by storm in recent times. The explosion in the number of local video films is truly astounding. As Aihe (2002) points out, conservative using Hausa films as a case in point, the study examined the effect of Muslim women participation in Hausa films.
1.3AIMS OF THE STUDY
The major purpose of this study is to examine the effect of muslim women participation in Hausa Films. Other general objectives of the study are:
1. To examine the level of which Islamic religion has affected the Hausa Films.
2. To determine the level of Muslim women participation in Hausa movies.
3. To examine the roles of the Muslim women in Hausa films
4. To examine the effect of Muslim Women participating in Hausa Films.
5. To examine the factors affecting the Muslim women in participating in Hausa Films.
6. To recommend ways of improving about Muslim women participating in Hausa movies.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. What are the levels of which Islamic religion has affected the Hausa Films?
2. What is the level of Muslim women participation in Hausa movies?
3. What are the roles of the Muslim women in Hausa films?
4. What are the effects of Muslim Women participating in Hausa Films?
5. What are the factors affecting the Muslim women in participating in Hausa Films?
6. What are the possible ways of improving about Muslim women participating in Hausa movies.
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
H0: There is no effect of Muslim Women participation in Hausa Films.
H1: There is a significant effect of Muslim Women participation in Hausa Films.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study is of great importance for a number of reasons. First, it will serve as an eye opener in the Nigeria film industry on the benefits of showcasing rich and positive indigenous culture while guiding against undue adoption of foreign plots, themes and story lines that may not necessarily project the nation in a good light. Secondly, policy makers will find this study helpful in formulating policies and programmes to promote proactive film production for nation image building and preservation of local cultural heritages. Again, this study will no doubt serve as a wakeup call to the Hausa film producers in the country to leave up to expectation in terms of quality local content production and projection of the Muslim’s positive image. Above all, this study will add to the increasing body of knowledge in this research area and will serve as a veritable source of document from which future researcher could draw background information from.
1.7SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study is based on the effect of Muslim Women participation in Hausa Films.
1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Islam: The act of surrendering to God by spreading the religion of the Muslims, a monotheistic faith regarded as revealed through Muhammad as the Prophet of Allah.
Woman: A woman is a female human being. The term woman is usually reserved for an adult, with the term girl being the usual term for a female child or adolescent. The term woman is also sometimes used to identify a female human, regardless of age, as in phrases such as "women's rights". With regard to gender, a woman may also be a person whose sex assignment does not align with their gender identity, or those who have sexual characteristics that do not fit typical notions of male or female (intersex).
Films: Film, also called a movie, motion picture, theatrical film, or photo play, is a series of still images that when shown on a screen creates an illusion of motion images (due to the phi phenomenon).