1.1 Background to the Study
The 1999 Constitution defines the Civil Service of the Federation as ‘service of the Federation in a civil capacity as staff of the Office of the President, the Vice-President, a Ministry or department of the Government of the Federation assigned with the responsibility for any business of the Government of the Federation’’ b(part iv,318 (1). The civil service of the federation is the organ of the government that is responsible for the implementation and execution of Federal Government policies, programs and decisions; they are often regarded as the fourth tier of government. Their roles and functions are so crucial and indispensable that no government can do without them.
The Nigeria civil service is an important institution of the state, which affects the lives of the citizens daily. It is essential to modern life because of the roles it plays in ensuring that the policies and programs of government are translated into action and brought to reality. Ezeani (2004:188) highlighted that “the civil service remains a vital instrument for rapid socio-economic development of any nation, for any meaningful development and achievement to take place, the civil service must be properly positioned and equipped”.
In view of the above, for civil service to achieve her objectives, the personnel have to be