1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The rising profile of poverty in Nigeria is expecting a troubling measurement as proven by experimental studies have proved. Nigeria, a sub-Saharan African nation, has in recent times half of its populace living in miserable poverty (Ojo, 2008). Likewise, the publication of the Federal Office of Statistics (1996) uncovers that poverty has been gigantic, pervasive, and overwhelms a large proportion of the Nigerian culture. Abiola and Olaopa (2008) state that the scourge of destitution in Nigeria is an incontrovertible reality, which results in craving, lack of awareness, hunger, sickness, unemployment, poor access to credit facilities, and bleak future and additionally a general level of human sadness. After decades of social policies based on the inclusion of the poor, poverty is again being treated as a problem of marginalization. As Procacci (2007, p5) puts it, “marginalization puts poverty further apart from the whole of society.” As far as poverty is concerned, the fundamental right to a minimum of resources for not starving is not enough for organizing a social response to its increase. Social exclusion confirms a dual society and appears more as a symptom of a social fracture than as a solution against it. Thus, under the Millennium Development Goals, today’s development strategies try to put under question the reverse link between growth and inequality by tackling poverty under multiple dimensions. This inevitably demands that not only extreme poverty is targeted, nor individual trajectories, but rather multiple processes producing poverty within society are also tackled. Sen (2011) in his hypothesis on poverty infers poverty as not a characteristic marvel inside a bigger edge of disparity issues; rather it can be wiped out if individuals are empowered to wind up self-sufficient from requirements. Genuine improvement is conceivable if fundamental needs are unmet and majority groups of the populace are kept in a state of reliance. As Manning (2007) observed, “rapid and sustained poverty reduction requires ‘pro-poor growth’, that is a pace and pattern of growth that enhances the ability of poor women and men to participate in, contribute to and benefit from growth. In essence, growth should be broad based across sectors and regions and inclusive of the large part of the workforce that poor men and women make up. Also, policies for sustaining growth such as those aiming at strengthening institutional capacity, promoting democratic and effective governance should increase poor people’s incentives, opportunities and capabilities for employment so they can participate in and benefit from growth” This simply means fast and managed poverty reduction requires 'master poor development', that is a pace and example of development that improves the capacity of poor ladies and men to take an interest in, add to and profit by development. Generally, development ought to be wide based crosswise over segments and areas and comprehensive of the huge part of the workforce that poor men and ladies make up. Additionally, strategies for maintaining development, for example, those going for reinforcing institutional limit, advancing equitable and compelling administration ought to increase poor people’s inducements, openings and proficiencies for engagement so they can contribute to and also benefit from growth.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
It has been known in Nigeria that each government leaves on one type of poverty reduction methodology or the other. What has stayed unanswered is the degree to which these projects either have effect on the poor or have affected the poor citizens. Lately, studies on the subject poverty and its reduction agencies and additionally programs demonstrate that impressive gap exists between the target objective reducing or eliminating poverty and accomplishment. It appears that the endeavors of different governments are inadequate and accordingly very little has been done to actualize the advantages. For poverty reduction agencies, their outcomes don't appear to legitimize the gigantic monetary allocations to them. Poor individuals' view of formal poverty reduction establishments are to a great extent very ineffective and insignificance in their lives as government poverty reduction exercises contribute little in their battles to survive and once in a while help them to escape the problem. The most disturbing problem is the fact that the huge amount of money voted for these policies only succeeded in deepening poverty thereby multiplying the number of persons falling into that category instead of moving out of it. Based on the foregoing, this research investigates the role of government in poverty alleviation in Nigeria.
1.3 AIMS OF THE STUDY
The major aim of the study is to examine an appraisal of role of government to poverty alleviation in Nigeria. Other specific objectives of the study include;
1. To examine the poverty alleviation programsin Nigeria.
2. To examine the performance of such programs in alleviating poverty in Nigeria.
3. To examine the impact of government poverty alleviation programs on poverty reduction in Nigeria.
4. To examine the methods of poverty alleviation techniques.
5. To examine the relationship between poverty alleviation programs and poverty reduction in Nigeria.
6. To examine reasons for policy failure in poverty alleviation and suggest possible remedial measures.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1 What are the poverty alleviation programs Nigeria?
2 What are the performances of such programs in alleviating poverty in Nigeria?
3 What is the impact of government poverty alleviation programs on poverty reduction in Nigeria?
4 What are the methods of poverty alleviation techniques?
5 What is the relationship between poverty alleviation programs and poverty reduction in Nigeria?
6 What are reasons for policy failure in poverty alleviation and suggest possible remedial measures?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
H0: There are is no significant impactof government poverty alleviation programs on poverty reduction policies in Nigeria.
H1: There is a significant impact of government poverty alleviation programs on poverty reduction policies in Nigeria
H0: There is no significant relationship between poverty alleviation programs and poverty reduction in Nigeria.
H1: There is a significant relationship between poverty alleviation programs and poverty reduction in Nigeria.
1.5SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study would be of benefit to unveil problem areas in the implementation of poverty alleviation programs as well as to proffer policy recommendations that would benefit both the governments and relevant poverty alleviation agencies in their quest for poverty alleviation and/or eradication in the three states and Nigeria in general. The study would also be of immense benefit to students, researchers and scholars who are interested in developing further studies on the subject matter
1.7 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The study is restricted to an appraisal of role of government to poverty alleviation in Nigeria.
LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
Financial constraint: Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview)
Time constraint: The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.8DEFINITION OF TERMS
Poverty: is a multifaceted concept, which may include social, economic, and political elements. Absolutepoverty, extreme poverty, or destitution refers to the complete lack of the means necessary to meet basic personal needs such as food, clothing and shelter.
Alleviation: The action or process of making suffering, deficiency, or a problem less severe, peace, security, and the alleviation of poverty were high on the agenda.
Government: Is the system or group of people governing an organized community, often a state. In the case of its broad associative definition, government normally consists of legislature, executive, and judiciary.