1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Since Nigeria’s independence in 1960, Nigerians are moon-faced with lots of issues emanating from disorderliness, confusion and also the latest insecurity development. To be precise, the primary downside Federal Republic of Nigeria encountered was the military intervention within the Nigeria’s polity. The military administrations that were the fall-outs of the coups and counter coups marked the start of the country’s calamities and misfortunes. These were followed by the claims and agitations for resource management by the Niger-Delta region that in sensible term means that demand for larger shares of the oil revenue. The lack of the govt. to fulfil up with such demand, LED to the militant teams from the region taking arms and waged war against Nigerians. The timely intervention currently President Alhaji Yar’Adua helped to quench the burning flame enkindled by the militants. Nigerians got alleviated following the introduction of amnesty policy into Nigeria’s political and democratic structures by a similar Yar’Adua administration. Unexpectedly, there arose in most up-to-date time, a disorder of a significant non secular dimension within the country. The harmful trend in insecurity came with the emergence of Boko Haram, the Muslim fundamentalist sect, bombing and offensive everything reachable. in step with reports, multiple explosions went off one when the opposite in places like Kano, within the usual manner of attacks by the members of Boko Haram sect in urban center, Damaturu, Potiskum, Gombe, national capital and Madalla in Niger State (Okpaga, Ugwu and Eme, 2012). They attacked government establishments and later dilated to churches thereby inflicting terror and destruction on innocent individuals. Bombing of the international organisation Secretariat in national capital on August twenty six, 2011 didn't happen long when the same attack on the Federal Republic of Nigeria law Headquarters on June sixteen. Boko Haram otherwise known as “Western education is sin,” claimed responsibilities for these and alternative series of bomb blasts and attacks. It's ascertained that the sect targeted its attacks within the northern elements of the country. Democratic government was put in in Federal Republic of Nigeria in 1999 when over sixteen years of military dictatorship. The aspiration of the world was that with the approaching of civilian government the dividends of democracy can unfold to any or all nooks and crannies of Federal Republic of Nigeria. However, their hopes are dotted by the recent events in Federal Republic of Nigeria. Fifteen years when civilian rule, the country’s security state of affairs is pathetic that no-one within the country is safe from the attacks of terrorists, kidnappers, armed gangs and militants. Electoral and communal violence has additionally combined the security situation that has made Nigeria unsafe for residence. The activities of the dreaded Islamic terrorist group Boko Haram have been a great concern to the Nigerian government and the international community, as in up to date; Boko Haram has killed over ten thousand citizens despite the security measure taken by the federal Republic of Nigeria to checkmate the heinous crime of the sect against humanity. It absolutely was within the lightweight of the failure of the govt. Counter act of terrorism drive that created youths within the North- East a part of the country to make a youth anti-terrorism movement known as “Civilian JTF” to enrich the trouble of the govt. counter terrorism strategy. From the preceding, it becomes progressively tough for socioeconomic activities to thrive below this security threats that have enclosed the north. This is often evident within the continuous relocation of Nigerian businessmen from the north to alternative a lot of peaceful setting. Also, the Yoruba individuals square measure equally returning to Lagos and city (Egbemode, 2012). It's unfortunate to watch that folks of north origin don't think about the good old Ahmedu Bello University (ABU), Bayero University, Kano (BUK) or University of Jos (UNIJOS) once filling upright forms for his or her youngsters. In alternative words, for worry of the insecurity state of affairs usually within the northern region, several oldsters from the square measure the realm are causing their youngsters to the southern areas of the country for his or her education. The question is, if the indigenes of the north square measure equally fleeing from their own God-given setting, what's going to then be the fate of the socio-economic condition of the region? It's the main target of this paper to supply answer to the current question.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Insurgency before the advent of Boko Haram was alien to Nigeria. But ever since its inception, the corporate existence of the country is on the threshold of collapse as more than 13,000 Nigerians had lost their lives (Ogunlesi, 2014). Many Christians and people from the southern parts of the country have deserted the war areas for their states, in search of peace. More importantly, the Christians are accusing the Muslims of the constant bombing of their churches and members, while the Moslem leaders advised their members to defend their religion at all cost. Recently, there were multiple bomb blasts in Kano State near the Emir’s palace, which left many Moslems who went for prayers death (Monica,2014). Less than 24 hours after the blasts, the city of Shani in Borno State that harbored mainly Christians was equally bombed and over a hundred people lost their lives (Ikeji, 2014). Furthermore, the destructions of properties especially public buildings, private buildings and markets have affected the socio economic development of these areas. Government activities in the most affected states are at standstill, and monies which would have been used to develop the state are expended on curbing the excesses of the insurgents. The hallmark is the breakdown of socio economic activities and increased poverty in the affected areas. More significantly, the activities of the insurgent group are politicized as virtually all the institutions in Nigeria have some people who are sympathetic to their course. For instance when the Nyanya park bombings in Abuja occurred in April, 2014, the People’s Democratic Party and the All Progressive Congress used it as a political weapon against each other as to who was the main sponsor of Boko Haram. Recently, the National Assembly was sharply divided over the request by the President to extend the state of emergency rule in the three States of Borno, Adamawa and Yobe. As the politics rages on, the insurgent group has intensified their killings; improved on their tactics, captured many towns and acquired more sophisticated arms. More oddity is the fact that females have joined the league of suicide bombers, as more than 1.5million Nigerians are internally displaced.
1.3. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The major aim of the study is to evaluate the socio economic impact of insurgency in Nigeria case study of Boko Haram activities in Borno state. Other specific objectives are as follows;
1. To examine the implications of Boko Haram insurgency.
2. To identify the factors responsible for insurgency in Nigeria.
3. To examine the effect of Boko Haram activities on the socio economic development of Nigeria.
4. To examine the impact of politics on the fight against insurgency.
5. To examine the relationship between insurgency and socio- economic development in Nigeria.
6. To recommend solutions to Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria.
1.4. RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. What are the implications of Boko Haram insurgency?
2. What are the factors responsible for insurgency in Nigeria?
3. What are the effects of Boko Haram activities on the socio economic development of Nigeria?
4. What are the impacts of politics on the fight against insurgency?
5. What is the relationship between insurgency and socio-economic development in Nigeria?
6. What are the recommended solutions to Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria?
1.5. RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
H01: There is no effect of Boko Haram activities on the socio economic development of Nigeria.
H02: There is no significant relationship between insurgency and socio-economic development in Borno State.
1.6. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The findings from this study will educate the government and the general public on the extent of damage done by the activities of the Boko Haram sect in Borno state and its effect on the socio economic development with a view of resolving the crisis. This research will also serve as a resource base to other scholars and researchers interested in carrying out further research in this field subsequently, if applied will go to an extent to provide new explanation to the topic.
1.7. SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study is restricted to the socio economic impact of insurgency in Nigeria case study of Boko Haram activities in Borno state.
1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Impact: A possible future effect or result, something that is suggested without being said directly. The fact, state of being involved in or connected to something.
Insurgency: Is defined as an organized movement aimed at the overthrow or destruction of a constituted government through the use of subversion, espionage, terrorism and armed conflict. Insurgencies normally seek to overthrow the existing social order and reallocate power within the country.
Economic: The theories, principles, and models that deal with how the market process works. It attempts to explain how wealth is created and distributed in communities, how people allocate resources that are scarce and have many alternative uses, and other such matters that arise in dealing with human wants and their satisfaction.
Development: The process of economic and social transformation that is based on complex cultural and environmental factors and their interactions.
Socio economic: (Also known as social economics) is the social science that studies how economic activity affects and is shaped by social processes. In general it analyzes how societies progress, stagnate, or regress because of their local or regional economy, or the global economy.