1.1 Background of the study
Terrorism is defined as calculated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against noncombatant targets by sub national groups or clandestine agents, usually intended to influence an audience.
The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) also defines terrorism as “the unlawful use of force or violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives.”
The problem of terrorism and global security has become substantial points of contention in putting in place foreign policy of nations across the globe. Recent researches have revealed that such challenges as, social, economic, political and technological factors that spin around the hub of global security matters have been seriously undermined by dangerous acts of terrorism. Thisis because terrorism in which ever from poses an alarming kind of violence and threat in the contemporary world, which constitutes great hindrance to free flow relationship that existamongst nations. In Pakistan for instance the cause of terrorism ranges from religious extremism, perceived oppression and nationalist separatist or ethnic considerations that no doubt have greatly impacted on the Global security.
Terrorism is violence or threat of violence calculated to create an atmosphere of fear or alarm and thereby bring about some social and political changes. This definition is in line with the explanation offered by a South American Jurist more than 30 years ago, according to him “Terrorism consists of acts that are in themselves may be classic-crimes, murder, arson, the use of explosives, but that differ from classic crimes in that they are excited with the deliberate intention of causing panic and terror within an arranged or organized society1. It is the use of violence and most especially the fear it causes among people for political objectives.2
It was also defined by the Terrorism Research Center as “the systematic use of physical violence against non combatants but with an audience greater than the immediate victim in mind to create a general climate of fear in a large population in order to affect some kind of political and social changes”3.
The United States Federal Bureau of investigation (FBI) defines terrorism as “the unlawful use of force or violence against persons or property to intimate or coerce a government, the population or any segment thereof in furtherance of political and social objectives”4. In basic terms, terrorism is an act of inflicting terror upon the people in the process of achieving personal or political objectives5.
Although from the above definitions, it can be rightly concluded that there is no precise or widely accepted definition of the concept of terrorism, it is generally believed that terrorism is the use of covert violent actions in order to achieve certain objectives. It is a form of covert attack directed at targets that are outside a certain range of clearly military targets. Though the terrorist attack on the world trade centre in New York and the Pentagon in Washington DC constitute a prime case, most terrorist attack are aimed at domestic regimes or other targets within the terrorist own country7.
Terrorism is not new on the world stage. Northern Ireland had been dealing with terrorists for more than forty years, Israel with Palestinian terrorists for much the same period and Spain with Basque terrorists.
Although the use of terrorism as a political tool extends far back into history, recent decades have seen a rise in the practice for several reasons. One is the overwhelming advantage in weapons that governments usually have over dissident groups. Because many governments are armed with aircraft and other high tech weapons that are unavailable to opposition forces, it has often become nearly suicidal for armed dissidents to use conventional tactics.
Second, terrorists’ targets are now more readily available than in the past: people are more concentrated in urban areas and even in large buildings; there are countless airline flights, and more and more people travel abroad. Third, the mass availability of instant visual news through television and satellite communications makes it easy for terrorists to gain an audience. This is important because terrorism is not usually directed at its victims as such; rather it is intended to frighten others. Fourth, technology has led to the creation of increasingly lethal weapons that terrorists can use to kill and injure large numbers of people. These technological “advances” include biological, chemical, nuclear, and radiological weapons7.
Terrorists attacks are relatively regular event. In 2000 there were 423 international terrorist attacks – many of these carried out across national borders and there were many other incidents of domestic terrorism. However, through this time, Americans worried little about terrorism for example, in a survey conducted in 1999 that asked Americans to name two or three top foreign policy concerns, only 12 percent of the respondents mentioned terrorism as a worry.8
This American’s sense of security was shattered by the September 11, 2001 terrorists attacks which included the destruction of the World trade Center, major damage to the pentagon, the crash of a hijacked airliner in Pennsylvania, and the deaths of over 3,000 people.
Soon thereafter President George W. Bush responded by announcing a war on terrorism9. An American led coalition of forces intervened in Afghanistan, toppling the Taliban government that had supported Al Qaeda and attacking Al Qaeda forces in the country. Later President Bush charged that Iraq, Iran and North Korea constituted an “axis of evil” that, among other things were guilty of state terrorism. In March 2003, the United States, in alliance with Great Britain and other countries known as the coalition of the Willing attacked Iraq, arguing in part that Iraq’s support of terrorism made it an international threat and an outlaw nation.10
Terrorist make use of various means in achieving their aims, irrespective of whether it is individual group or state sponsored terrors. Some of which are briefly stated as follows:
Most of these means terrorists adopt in carrying out their activities are becoming obsolete because of the fact that most governments that are more effective in combating terrorist elements.
Few governments are as inclined as they were some years ago to release captured terrorists simply to avoid further terrorists attacks. Most government have adopted non concessions, non negotiations politics in dealing with hostage cases or situation.11
Physical security around likely target has increased for example, it has become more difficult now, although it is still possible to smuggle weapons abroad through airlines. Embassies are becoming virtual fortress (especially after the terrorists attack on the United States embassies in Kenya and Tanzania in August 1998).
Diplomatic and top executives often travel in armored limousines with armed body guards (for example, the coming of former United States President Bill Clinton into Sudan and Ghana with armored limousines and several CIA and FBI agents). But despite these undeniable achievements, the total volume of terrorist’s activities in the world has increased. At the same time terrorism has become bloodier and the terrorist seem to be less reluctant to inflict casualties. The latest fear exercise after the September 11th incident is the fear of terrorist making use of instruments of mass destruction in achieving their aims12.
One aspects of the problem of definition of the term terrorism is the difficulty in distinguishing between terrorism and a freedom fighter for example, the man who attacks a plane and proceeds to kill some or all the passengers.
The man who wrap bomb around his waist and drives into a shopping mall causing maximum damages of government may well be a freedom fighter to his kith and kin.
1.2 Statement of the problem
Nigeria just like Pakistan have been caught in the web as terrorist acts are now a regular attribute which has affected its image abroad. This has led to capital flight as many nations have withdrawn their presence in the country making government to lose revenue at an alarming rate. Incidences of abduction and bombings in Nigeria have made the country lose its 6th position as a leading oil exporting country to Angola in 2011. (Ojukwu, 2011).
Enshrined in the foreign policy objective of Nigeria is Economic Diplomacy which is one of the pivots of the Transformation Agenda under the Jonathan Administration (Okoro, 2013). Economic diplomacy is aimed at wooing investors from other countries to invest in Nigeria. The recent security problem in the country has frustrated this goal because instability and violence has led to balance of trade deficits especially in Northern Nigeria
One of the glaring effects of terrorism on foreign policy is that most countries do not look at Nigeria as a serious minded nation to establish an economic agreement with. Hence most acts of terrorism have often times been politicized and facts distorted by government officials for personal gains.
Apart from the economic effects of terrorism, the psyche of Nigerians has also been affected in their everyday life as visiting public places have become dreadful. The productivity ratio of the citizenry has also been reduced which has limited the country’s growth and development, many Nigerians are now suffering from Post-Traumatic Stress Disorders as a result of terrorist acts that have affected them psychologically.
1.3 Objectives of the study
The major aim of this research is to examine the impact terrorism and its implication on global security in the 21st century.
1. To examine the rise of terrorism in Pakistan and also look at the Foreign Relations Policy of government amidst the security challenges posed by the obnoxious trend and also the measures taken by government to pre-empt its expansion and continue threats to live and property with recommendations drawn forthwith.
2. To assess the major cause of high level of terrorism in the world today.
3. To recommend ways of reducing or if possible; eliminate terrorism in the world.
1.4 Research questions
1. What is the implication of terrorism on global security?
2. What is the major cause of high level of terrorism in the world today?
3. What are the ways of reducing or if possible; eliminate terrorism in the world?
1.5 Research hypotheses
H0: Terrorism has no significant implication on global security in Pakistan.
H1: Terrorism has significant implication on global security in Pakistan.
1.6 Significance of the study
The paper will assist the world in tackling and reducing. the study would also benefit students, researchers and scholars who are interested in developing further studies on the subject matter by being a source of relevant literature.
1.7 Scope/Limitations of the study
The scope of this study centers on the implication of terrorism on Global security using Pakistan between 2010-2017 as a case study.
Limitations of study
1. Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
2. Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.8 Definition of terms
Global security: is the efforts taken by the community of nations to protect against threats which are transnational in nature.
Terrorism: As calculated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against noncombatant targets by subnational groups or clandestine agents, usually intended to influence an audience.
Foreign policy: Is the manner and objectives that are important for establishing and maintaining relationships with other countries and people of other lands.
Policy: A plan or course of action, as of a government, political party, or business, intended to influence and determine decisions, actions, and other matters