TABLE OF CONTENT
TITLE PAGE ……………………………………………………………………………………………………..i
TABLE OF CONTENT v
LIST OF TABLES vii
CHAPTER ONE:INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY 1
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 4
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY 5
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY 6
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS 6
1.6 HYPOTHESES 7
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY 8
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELEATED LITERATURE 9
2.1 INTRODUCTION 9
2.2 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK 9
2.2.1 AUTOMATION 9
2.2.2 OFFICE MANAGER 10
2.3 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK 11
2.4 THEORETICAL STUDIES 12
2.4.1 THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF OFFICE AUTOMATION TO THE PERFORMANCE OF OFFICE MANAGERS IN PORT HARCOURT 12
2.4.2 OFFICE TECHNOLOGIES USED BY THE OFFICE MANAGER TO PERFORM HIS DUTIES 16
2.4.3 THE CHALLENGES POSED BY OFFICE AUTOMATION ON THE PERFORMANCE OF THE OFFICE MANAGER 20
2.4.4 SOLVE THE PROBLEMS POSED BY OFFICE AUTOMATION TO THE PERFORMANCE OF THE OFFICE MANAGER 21
2.4.5 BENEFITS OF AUTOMATION TO THE OFFICE MANAGER IN MODERN BUSINESS OFFICE 24
2.5 RELATED EMPIRICAL STUDIES 30
2.6 SUMMARY OF REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 32
CHAPTER THREE:RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 34
3.1 INTRODUCTION 34
3.2 RESEARCH DESIGN 34
3.3 SOURCES OF DATA 34
3.3.1 PRIMARY SOURCES OF DATA 35
3.3.2 SECONDARY SOURCES OF DATA 35
3.4 POPULATION 35
3.5 SAMPLING TECHNIQUE 35
3.6 SAMPLE SIZE 35
3.7 INSTRUMENT FOR DATA COLLECTION 36
3.8 VALIDATION OF RESEARCH INSTRUMENT 36
3.9 RELIABILITY OF RESEARCH INSTRUMENT 36
3.10 METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION 37
3.11 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS 37
CHAPTER FOUR:DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS 39
4.1 INTRODUCTION 39
4.2 RESEARCH QUESTION ONE 39
4.3 RESEARCH QUESTION TWO 40
4.4 RESEARCH QUESTION THREE 42
4.5 RESEARCH QUESTION FOUR 43
4.6 HYPOTHESES ONE 44
4.7 HYPOTHESES TWO 45
4.8 HYPOTHESES THREE 46
CHAPTER FIVE:SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 48
5.1 INTRODUCTION 48
5.2 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS 48
5.3 CONCLUSION 49
5.4 RECOMMENDATIONS 51
5.5 SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH 51
5.6 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY 52
APPENDIX I 57
APPENDIX II 58
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Duniya (2011), observed that due to the introduction of sophisticated technological office equipment in today’s offices and the role office managers to play in ensuring accuracy and efficiency in their jobs, the office managers need to meet the challenges by acquiring new skills and competencies for efficient operations in the electronic office. The roles of secretarial professionals have been turned around by technology. It has provided the tools that shift the role of office managers from that of information recorders to business strategists (Adedoyin, 2010; Office automation has provided the office manager with sophisticated office machines at his/her disposal to carry out his/her duties effectively.
Office automation indicates the use of computer hardware and software toautomate the daily tasks and processes accomplished at organizations. Office automation applications enabled the digital creation and storing of data and information into databases for retrieval and manipulation when needed. Additionally, it is used to expedite communication across the entire organization and with external partners, customers and vendors. (Grantham, 2015; Coen, 2016 ).
The success of any organization depends on the office manager whose role though supportive is critical to the achievement of organizational goals and objectives. According to Mbaga (2012),Office managers duties include; to convene departmental meetings, to write minutes of meetings, to write reports of committees, to word process documents, purchasing and maintain office furniture, appliances and equipment; keep personal records and record minutes of meetings. Now the functions of office managers have increased tremendously as a result of automation in the business organizations, these duties, according to Mbaga(2012), are Planning, Organizing, Controlling, Commanding,Coordinating, Communicating, Evaluation of activities.
Spencer (2012),opined that automation remains a prominent factor that has contributed positively to complete information processing revolution today. Most of the routine tasks are performed by automated office equipment such as computing and telephoning. In a nutshell, automation has improved officeeducation, thus, enabling office managers to become better prepared for automated office tasks.
Harvey (2016), noted that since the primary business of the modern office is to collect, record, sort, analyze, store and distribute information, office automation integrates all available hardware, software procedures and human resources so that office information is not only processed accurately, speedily and comprehensively but also made available when, where, and in the manner required. Today, computers as well as other technological aids play very important roles in the effective discharge of office managers’ performance. Information is required for a business to function effectively, and to highlight performance of the different units of the business, and to direct attention to areas requiring review. Most information required for management purposes are either available in a form on which they can be readily used or they exist in the form of raw data. According to Ejeka (2006), the automated office functions effectively and efficiently with little or no stress at all. Office automation reduces the drudgery, which often accompanied doing repetitive tasks such as typing numerous memoranda, filing and copying. This creates time for the office manager to be creative and also increases productivity.
The internet has made it even easier for office managers to use online office automation applications to transmit data, email, video and voice messages across the organization and outside its border (Wikipedia, 2013). New advanced applications has made it easier for workers to accomplish basic tedious repetitive tasks including, typing, filing, document management, faxing, storing and telephoning.(Coates, 1988) Office automation started in the seventies and into the eighties of this century. The vast introduction of the PC and desktop computer made it easier for organizations to implement office automation applications in every aspect and level of the organization.
The advantages of office automation range from faster task completion, elimination of offline data storage, lowering the number of workers within each department and sharing office resources and collaboration between workers from different areas of the organization.(Leeet al, 2005). These advantages make it a compulsory for every organization to implement office automation in all departments of the library (Locsin, 2011; Mary Culnanet at, 2007). But, what is the impact of applying office automation to the productivity of workers at all organizational levels of the university library. The answer has to do with office automation transformation of the quality of work which is directly related to repetitive and tedious tasks, more control and flexibility in task completion, increased skill level and tasks variety leading to increased workers productivity.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
It is not clear what effect office automation has on office managers. While the impression is that the introduction of automation in business establishment appears to be a blessing to its users, the office manager who had not up-dated their skills fear that it would replace them. Is that a genuine fear? If an automated office would effectively replace the office manager, how soon would that happen? The world is undergoing a rapid change due to the innovation of office automation.Office managers are challenged by the problem of ICT training. Employers expect office managers to be trained by their schools to acquire ICT skills which seems not to exist. Also employers are unwilling to retrain office managers as which they consider as a wastage of funds. This has forced young graduates in office. Technology and management to retrain themselves on ICT in order to gain employment.
The fast rate with which ICT equipment is introduced into business organization and the cost of acquisition and installation makes it difficult for organizations to purchase ICT equipment. The limited stock of ICT facilities reduce the performance of office managers.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The main aim of this research work is to examine the effects of automation on the performance of office managers.Other sub-headings are:
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The findings of this research work will be of great benefit to office managers, business organizations and the general public.
If the findings of this study are put into effects, the office manager will benefit as it will give the office manager to appreciate the use of automation in performing his duties, it will also provide opportunity for office managers to go for training in other to meet up the changing trend in business organization.
Management will also benefit from this study because when office manager are efficient and effective in their performance, there will be increase in the overall output of the organization.
The general public will also benefit as the office manager will provide better service to the general public.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
Tested the following null hypothesis are to be tested at 0.05 level of insignificance.
Ho:1 Male and female students do not differ in their mean rating of the significance contribution of office automation on the performance of the office managers in Port Harcourt, Rivers State.
Ho:2 Male and female students do not differ in their mean rating to determine how office technology enables managers to perform their duties in Port Harcourt, Rivers state.
Ho:3 Male and female students do not differ in their mean rating of what are the challenges posed by office automation on the performance of office managers in Port Harcourt, Rivers State.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This research work is limited to discussing the effects of office automation on the performance of the office manager. It is limited to some selected business organization in Port Harcourt, Rivers State. They include, Rivers State Secretariat, Nigerian National Petroleum Cooperation, and Nigeria Agip Company. Only office managers (secretaries) will be used, other staff will not be included.