This research work is basically on the aspects of morphology of Kuturmi. By the term morphology, we mean the study of word structures and description of the minimal, meaningful forms in a language. The basic principle in morphology is principle of affixation. The derivation process of words, for instance, affixation, compounding in Kuturmi will be analysed.
In this chapter, we discussed the historical background of the Kuturnu speakers, socio linguistics profile under which we shall consider the culture, kingship and rulership system, occupation, religion, marriage, belief and naming. The genetic classification of the language.
The people who speak Kuturnu language are called Kuturnbawa people who haired from Daura province in Katsina state. Though the people claim not to have some origin with the Daura people, there is no clear evidence that this is true, because even the genetic classification grouped them together. The seconf existing history of origin of Kuturnu people is associated with migration. The people claimed that they migrated from Kano as a result of Jihad wars 1807AD before settling in their present location.
The people are bilingual (Hausa and Kuturnu). Hausa is the lingua franca of the Northern people and it goes alongside with Kuturnu language which is the language of the people. some of the viallges where the language is spoken includes: Akama, Akwando, Atara, Anturu and Asawe, all in Kachia Local Government Area. The Kuturnu people were nicknamed after their occupation “mortar carving” by their neighbours. The word mortar is “Turini” in Hausa language and which has been their name until now. The Kuturnu language people has no written history, but their history is being passed from generation to generation orally.
There are cordial relationship within and outside other districts such as; Kadara district, Ariko district, and Koron tsho district. The headquarters of all this districts is in Awon district, which oversees all other districts. There are various clans in each family which is headed by Ohe prominent person in the family through the agreement of the elders. It is traditionally titled “Ogumo” which mean “Chief”.
The social and cultural life of the people of Kuturnu is similar to Hausa culture. Hausa serves as the lingua franca of the North while Kuturmi is also used side by side with Hausa in the communities. Kuturmi language is not use as the language of instruction, instead Hausa language is being used.
The people of Kuturmi are very rich in culture, they have similar culture with Hausa people. the cultural life of the people are being handed down and preserved from one generation to another. They believe in justice, modesty, equity and fairness. They are very accommodating, especially to the visitors and live in peace with their neighbours.
KINGSHIP AND RULERSHIP
On arrival at their present settlement from Kano, their forefathers continued with their traditional mode of rulership institution under the leadership of ‘Ogumo’ meaning king. Nowadays, Kuturmi people operates two rulership systems Viz, the political leadership known as the district head and the traditional one known as ‘Ogumo’ which is the clan head in village. Matters regarding the development at the village acrbrrught before them. The political rulership known as district head is recognised by the Local Government Authority of the area while the various heads clan are the representative of clans in the village. The choosing of various heads of clan are doe through the agreement and decision of the members of the clans.
The mode of naming has changed from the olden days system. In the past, it was the rights of the elderly people in the village to give names to any child that was born in the village. Names that were given are based on season or the situation surrounding the birth of the child weather born during a particular festival, or after the death of an old person in the family, such person’s names can be given to such baby believing the dead has come back.
The naming ceremony usually takes place third days after the birth, when the mother had regained little strength. Through Christianity religion has changed this system. It is now being done by religion leaders and the fathers have right to give names to their children without any interference from the elders.
The major occupation of the people in the past was morta carving. Nowadays, the people have gradually shifted from mortar carving to the following works viz; farming, fishing and hunting. They plant Guinea corn, maize, rice, yam, cassava, millet, etc. The farming system which is the major work is being done by both females and males and it is carried-out for consumption and also for commercial purposes.
Civilisation is the order of the days now in the village, educated and educating people are now emerging in the area. The people can also be proud of various people from the village with white collar jobs all over the country.
The people were traditional idol worshipers before, but now, Christianity is the order of the day. In kuturmi villages, about 95 percent are Christians while the remaining 5 percent are Muslims which are non citizen of the land. There are different churches in the community all over the areas of kuturmi language.
There are various beliefs in the land of kuturmi before the inception of Christianity. They believe in spirits, ancestors gods, Rocks etc. Majority of people worshiping these things has passed away and their children are not worshipping these things.
BELIEF IN SPIRITS AND ANCESTORS
They believe in the existence of spirits and that these spirits have powers above those of ordinary people. The Spirit are commonly known in the language as ‘Ushari’. They believed that these spirit exist in various forms such as small, big, tall etc and that they (spirits) live in different places such as in the trees, mountains, forest etc.
Ancestral spirit are referred to as the spirit of the departed relatures. They believed, they have interest in the affaires of their living family members. Death in Kuturmi land is refer to as change over to the greatest world beyond. Once a person is dead, he will be addressed and called ‘Okwu’ in the language and the males ancestors are given more prominence than the females ones. Ancestors are worshipped seasonal and each family are expected to have ancestor’s shrine known ad Ujenekwo.
Marriage among the Kuturimi people is within a family tier that is, it is arranged between families. For instance, when a female child is born, the interested family will show their interest in marrying the girl for his male child, for this period, tribute in form of gifts shall be given to the family of the female till when she gets matured for marriage. The children did not have the right to choose who they want to marry by themselves. Marriage is used to strengthen inter families relationship among parents.
This method had however been modified as a result of civilization. Children are now given right to make choose by themselves without parental interferences.
Kuturmi language is classified as Kadara subgroup at Zaria group under Plateau division. The Plateau division is a subgroup under Benue, and Benue is located at Niger-Congo of the branch of Congo-Kordofani an language.