Table of Contents
Table of Contents ix
CHAPTER ONE 1
1.1 Background of the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 3
1.3 Objectives of the Study 4
1.4 Research Question 4
1.5 Research Hypotheses 5
1.6 Significance of the Study 5
1.7 Scope of the Study 6
1.8 Limitation of the Study 6
1.9 Definition of Terms 7
CHAPTER TWO 9
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 9
2.0 INTRODUCTION 9
2.1 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK 10
2.1.1 Concept of Personal Selling 10
2.1.2 Dimensions of Personal Selling 12
i. Face to Face Interactions 13
ii. Mutual Relationship 13
iii. Direct Mailing 15
2.1.3 Concept of Sales Performance 16
2.1.4 Measures of Sales Performance 17
i. Sales Volume 17
ii. Market Share 18
iii. Profitability 20
2.1.5 Personal Selling and Sales Performance of Capital Equipment 22
2.2 Theoretical Framework 22
2.2.1 The Game Theory 22
2.3 Review of Empirical Studies 23
2.4 SUMMARY OFREVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 25
CHAPTER 3 28
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 28
3.0 Introduction 28
3.1 Research Design 28
3.2 Population of the Study 28
3.3 Sampling Techniques Used 29
3.4 Sample Size 29
3.5 Source of Data 29
3.5.1 Primary Source (S) of Data 29
3.5.2 Secondary Source of Data 30
3.6 Research Instrument for Data Collection 30
3.7 Validity and Reliability of Instrument 30
3.8 Techniques for Data Analysis 31
CHAPTER FOUR 32
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS 32
4.1 DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS 32
Table 4.1: Questionnaire Administration and Retrieval 32
4.2 DATA ANALYSIS 33
4.3 HYPOTHESES TESTING 38
4.4 DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS 41
CHAPTER FIVE 44
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 44
5.0 Introduction 44
5.2 Summary 44
5.4 RECOMMENDATIONS 46
REFERENCES Error! Bookmark not defined.
Appendix I 50
APPENDIX II 51
1.1 Background of the Study
Personal selling is simply to make a sale on individual’s basis. Sales person serves as the link between the selling and buying system (Kotler, 2013). Today, sales persons are required to have more education and technical training than their predecessors. Sales people have many resources at their at disposal and are better equipped to develop long term relationship with buyers. They are backed by a team of specialists, including market researchers, financial experts and engineers. Salesman of today are very good diagnosticians of customers needs and they are also problems consultants who make well considered recommendations. They (sale people) are at home to all facets of a prospective customers business that will in any way relate to the goods and services to be sold.
The impact of personal selling on the sales cannot be underestimated. Personal selling remains an effective tool in assisting and/ or persuading customer to patronize a firm’s offerings or to act favourably upon an idea that has commercial significance to the firm. Esu (2012) identified the following as key roles of personal selling – managing relationship, creating customer for life, customer service, coordinating corporate resources and gathering information. Personal selling remains a cornerstone that assist firms to build strong customer relationship; increase in sales volume, customer retention, the needs, taste and preferences of customer, stimulating demand of a firm’s products. Through personal selling, information are provided about the relevant of products/services in order to reduce the risk involve in purchase and use; create awareness, arouse desire and interest. Firms make large investments in personal selling in response to several major trends: products and services are becoming increasingly sophisticated and complex. Competition has greatly increased in most product/services areas and demand for quality, value, and service by customers has risen sharply. In response to these trends, personal selling seems to offer solution to these trends. Personal selling implies direct communication with customers. This is the process of developing relationship, through identifying customers’ needs, designing and providing products based on these needs, as well as tailoring marketing communication strategies that facilitate his purchase decision making process.
Adebesi, (2006), defined personal selling as a process of conversing the sale of a company’s products or service by sales man or woman, it is a dynamic process involving direct contact between the seller of a product or service and the prospective buyers through oral or face to face or telephone discussion or written mail exchange of ideas through opinion.
Discussing the importance of selling Adirika (1993) defined selling as the process of including a prospective customer to act favourably on an idea advantage to the buyer and commercial significant to the seller.
Every marketing manager ought to have sales persons beside him that have a thorough knowledge of what personal selling is all about in order to bring about a good level of profit to the company. The increasing prominent of identifying them as the focus of a firm’s existence has made it imperative for marketing organization to go for more sales persons.
Personal selling is a branch of marketing that is also broad which is expedient for continued existence of every marketing company.
Most marketing organization today does not take into consideration the impact of personal selling. It has to do with person-to-person communication of which an immediate feedback is provided to the audience. To achieve and gain more customers personal selling needs to be strategically planned to be effective in today highly competitive market place.
The aim of an organization’s personal selling strategy is to bring existing and potential customers to a state of relative awareness of the organization’s product and to a state of adoption.
According to Orji 2010 industrial products are any product that is bought by an organization’s purchasing agent or by middle men to make some other with a view to resell them, or to undertake some other exchange related activities.
Industrial products are no sold to final consumer for ultimate consumption. They are goods sold primarily for use in producing other goods or rendering services or running of a business.
Form the foregoing therefore, the study seeks to examine the relationship between personal selling and sales performance of capital equipment in Jamil Motors Port Harcourt.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Despite the immense contributions of personal selling to different business organizations, critics still fail to recognize it as a marketing strategy to reckon with. They tend to lay much emphases on variables such as advertising, publicity, sales promotion etc. They believe that personal selling is expensive and does not bring quick response to product offering and increase sales volume.
Indeed, by showing less emphases on personal selling such marketers and organization fail to understand the fact that personal selling apart from inducing, gathering market information also help customers to know the features of the product, their price, importance and how such product can be used. In spite of all the positive attributes of personal selling, does it actually impact on the sales of capital equipment in Jamil Motors Port Harcourt. Therefore, the study is carried out to examine the relationship between personal selling and sales of capital equipment in Jamil Motors Port Harcourt.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The main objective of the study is to examine the relationship between personal selling and sales performance of capital equipment in Jamil Motors Port Harcourt. The specific objectives are as follows:
1. To examine the extent to which face to face interaction associate with sales performance of capital equipment in Jamil Motors Port Harcourt.
2. To examine the extent to which mutual relationship influence sales performance of capital equipment in Jamil Motors Port Harcourt.
3. To determine the extent to which direct mailing associate with sales performance of capital equipment in Jamil Motors Port Harcourt.
1.4 Research Question
The following research questions were proposed to guide the study.
1. Does face to face interaction associate with sales of capital equipment in Jamil Motors Port Harcourt?
2. Does mutual relationship influence sales of capital equipment in Jamil Motors Port Harcourt?
3. Does direct mailing associate with sales of capital equipment in Jamil Motors Port Harcourt?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following hypotheses were formulated to guide the study:
HO1: There is no significant relationship between face to face interaction and sales performance of capital equipment in Jamil Motors Port Harcourt.
HO2: There is no significant relationship between mutual relationship and sales performance of capital equipment in Jamil Motors Port Harcourt.
HO3: There is no significant relationship between direct mailing and sales performance of capital equipment in Jamil Motors Port Harcourt.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The researcher considered the study very significant on the following bases.
The consumers and customers of Jamil Motors will benefit from the study since the recommendations will help the company serve them better.
Furthermore, the significance of this study is that it will help researchers to understand and be able to differentiate between the ordinary sales person and the professional sales person and to other research as a topic for continual research work in the field of study.
The finding of the study will enable the industries specifically Jamil Motors to solve their sales problem and correct whatever mistakes they have made or are still making in line with their business operations.
From the result of the findings individuals or firms prospecting to go into industrial product production or investment who are interested in investing their money in industrial production will have additional information on personal selling as a channel for sales of industrial product.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The study is delimited under the following heading: content scope, geographical scope and unit of analysis.
Content Scope: The content scope of this study involves an investigation to ascertain the relationship between personal selling and sales performance of capital equipment. The dependent variable is sales performance, measured by increase sales, market share and profitability. While independent variable is personal selling measured by face to face interaction, mutual relationship and direct mailing.
Geographical Scope: The geographical scope of the study is Jamil Motors, Port Harcourt.
Unit of Analysis: The unit of analysis in this research involves both senior and junior staff of Jamil Motors at the time of carrying out the study.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
The study is limited to the following limitations:
The study was limited by the following:
Finance: Accessing fund for the research work was difficult and this limited the quality of research activity.
Time: The time allocated to the research work was not sufficient to give room for further intensive work on the field of study.
Organization Policy: Policies of the organization limited the level of information received. The personnel of the firms were not willing to give information, stating that it was against the organization’s policy.
1.9 Definition of Terms
Some terms used in the study are defined for purpose of understanding.
Industrial products are products that are bought by an organization for manufacturing purposes. They are used in manufacturing other products.
This is the marketing of industrial products and services to industrial users.
This is the maximum sales potential for all sellers of a product or service over a fixed period.
This is just a direct personal contact with present and prospective customers for the purpose of selling customer need to goods and services.
This is the act of persuading prospective buyers to buy goods and services from which they can derive suitable benefits thereby increasing their total satisfaction.