Rajput (2011), contends that the word motivation is derived from a Latin word “Movere” which literally means “to move”. They defined motivation as “the individuals desire to demonstrate the behaviourand reflects willingness to expend effort”. Motivation can be divided into extrinsic and intrinsic motivation. Extrinsic motivation refers to external factors, which can be measured in monetary terms, such as salary and benefits, promotion and disciplinary action. Extrinsic motivators can have an immediate and powerful effect, but it will not necessarily last long. Intrinsic motivation refers to internal factors such as job satisfaction, responsibility, freedom to act, scope to use and develop skills and abilities and challenging work and opportunities for development. Intrinsic motivators which are concerned with the „quality of working life are likely to have a deeper and longer term effect. These two different aspects of motivation are connected to each other and cannot be seen in isolation.
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
There is general agreement among psychologists that man experiences a variety of needs, there is considerable disagreement as to what these needs are and their relative importance (Van Rooyen, J. 2006).
One of the basic problems in any organization is how to motivate people to work. Motivating people to work entails, meeting their needs. This is because people working in the organization to meet workers needs affect the satisfaction, which the workers derive from their job.
The satisfaction that the workers derive from their job can affect their motivation to work. People are motivated by various factors at different times, according to Wilkinson et al (2007) the first factor is the combination of the individual perceptions of the expectations other people have of them, and their own expectations of themselves. This happens because people come into work situations with various expectations. This is why a balance must be struck as much as possible between organizational objectives and individual aspirations (Sulcas, P. 2007). The essence of this is to ensure a situation where the individual is motivated while the organization is achieving established objectives.
The second factor deals with the issue of self-images and concepts as well as life experiences and personality.
These factors have to be positively motivated in the worker to yield proactive behaviour. This can be achieved through a carefully planned reward system, which is a type of reinforcement directed at modifying people’sbehaviour.
Those who occupy management positions in organizations encourage employees basically through means of positive reinforcement. Positive reinforcement boosts favourable consequences that go a long way to encourage the repetition of particular behaviour (Adonisi, M. 2005).
It is therefore important for the management to ensure
that they motivate their employees to achieve the set goals and objectives of the organization. The management of an organization can motivate its employees if it’s able to study the characteristics of the employee and know what actually motivate them to productivity.
It is in view of this that this study wants to look at motivation of employees as a tool for improving organizational productivity, by using the AkwaIbom Civil Service Commissionas a case study.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Organization exists for the purpose of rendering some services. For the organization to meet its objectives, people are employed in the organization in order to help the organization meet its objectives. Thus, in order to ensure that people employed in the organization perform optimally towards the realization of organizational goals, they need to be motivated to work.
Motivating people to work entails meeting their needs. There is a great controversy over the issue of motivating people.
Some people are of the view that such extrinsic factors like money, praise, and quality of supervision and company’s policy can motivate people to work, while others are of the view that such extrinsic factors, like advancement, quality of the job done by person, recognition and growth can motivate workers to productivity.
It is in view of these controversies that this study wants to look at the motivation of employees in the organization by using AkwaIbom Civil Service Commissionas a case study.
1.3. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY.
This research work hopes to achieve the following objectives:
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
It is in view of the above problems that the following questions arise:
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
The following hypotheses will be tested in this study:
Ho: The quality of supervision will not motivate workers’ productivity.
H1: The quality of supervision will motivate workers’ productivity.
Ho: A worker’s perception of what obtained in his organization will not motivate him to greater productivity.
H1: A worker’s perception of what is obtained in his organization will motivate him to greater productivity.
Ho: A worker’s perception of organizational appraisal policy will motivate him to greater productivity.
H1: A worker’s perception of organizational appraisal policy will not motivate him to greater productivity.
Ho: The worker’s satisfaction with its fringe benefits will not motivate him to greater productivity.
H1: The worker’s satisfaction with its fringe benefits will motivate him to greater productivity.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study will educate the management of the organization (especially the organization under study, AkwaIbom Civil Service Commission) on how to motivate their workers to productivity.
The findings of this study will generate people’s interest in researching into other areas of motivation in the organization will enrich the literature on motivation as a phenomenon.
Finally, the study hopes to enrich people’s knowledge in this area of organizational behaviour and management of people in the organization.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study is on impact of motivation on organizational productivity. The study will also cover the various techniques of motivation and theories of motivation as they impact on employees’ productivity in an organization. The study will cover a period of ten (10) years of organizational performance.
1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY
The study is limited to the employees’ motivational factors,
and its effect on organizational productivity. The study does not consider other variables and as such is limited to only those areas specified above. Also, it does not cover all sectors of the Nigerian economy. The civil service is just a sector in AkwaIbom state, and as such, the study does not look into how these motivational factors work or influence productivity across other sectors.
1.9. DEFINITION OF TERMS
The following terms were defined as used in this study:
AKCSC: AkwaIbom State Civil Service Commission
Productivity: Is the ratio of output or production capacity of the workers in an organization. It is the relationship between the amount of one or more inputs and the amount of outputs from a clearly identified process.
Employees: Are theworkers in an organization, working for the accomplishment of the organizational goals. In this study, the employees are those staffs of the organization.
Motivation: Motivation is a decision-making process, through which the individual chooses the desired outcomes and sets in motion the behaviour appropriate to them".
Adequate Motivation: These are factors (familiarity, concern and driving force), which exist or are provided in a work situation either physically or psychologically which determine the input and productivity level of the worker.
Intimacy: Intimacy or Familiarity could be described as the feeling of warmth and friendliness based on interpersonal relationship among people.
Consideration: Consideration or Concern refers to a situation where both their colleagues and managers treat staffs with understanding. In this case, there is both a personal and human touch in dealing with workers.
Morale: Moral refers to staff emotional and mental level of zeal.
Adonisi, M. 2005. Antecedents of an organizational culture that fosters corporate entrepreneurship. People Dynamics, August 2005. Vol. 23, No. 8.p. 6.
Sulcas, P. 2007. Are your practices producing results? People Dynamics, June 2007. Vol. 25, No. 6.p. 12.
VAN ROOYEN, J. 2006. Facing barriers beyond conscious awareness. People Dynamics, January 2006. Vol. 24, No. 1. p. 4-5.
Wilkinson, A. Westerman, J. & Simmons, B. (2007) The effects of work environment on the personality-performance relationship: an exploratory study. Journal of Managerial Issues.Summer 2007. Vol. 19, Issue 2. p. 288-305, 18p.