TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS vii
CHAPTER 1 1
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY 1
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM 5
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 6
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS 6
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES 7
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY 7
1.7 SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY 8
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS 8
CHAPTER 2 10
LITERATURE REVIEW 10
2.1 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK 10
2.1 THE CONCEPT OF CAREER AND CAREER DEVELOPMENT 10
2.2 IMPORTANCE OF MANAGING CAREER DEVELOPMENT 16
2.3 TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT OPPORTUNITIES 17
2.4 SUPERVISOR/MANAGER’S ROLE IN CAREER DEVELOPMENT 23
2.5 EMPLOYEE JOB SATISFACTION 28
2.6 JOB SATISFACTION AND CAREER DEVELOPMENT 31
2.7 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK 33
2.8 EMPIRICAL REVIEW 35
CHAPTER 3 38
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 38
3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN 38
3.2 POPULATION OF THE STUDY 39
3.3 SAMPLE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUE 40
3.4 QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN 42
3.5 SOURCES AND METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION 42
3.6 DATA ANALYTICAL METHOD 43
3.7 RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY 44
CHAPTER 4 46
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS 46
4.1 DATA PRESENTATION 46
4.2 DATA ANALYSIS 47
4.3 TESTING OF HYPOTHESIS……………………………………………………….52
4.4 DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS 55
CHAPTER 5 57
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 57
5.1 SUMMARY 57
5.2 CONCLUSION 58
5.3 RECOMMENDATIONS 59
APPENDIX I 63
APPENDIX II 64
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
In the era of globalization, and the emergence of new technologies, organizations are striving to survive and succeed in an environment where dramatic changes are taking place. Rightsizing, downsizing and resizing of organizations is occurring all around the world, including Africa. Organizations are restructuring themselves in order to keep abreast with the new business and economic developments. Employees and managers alike are being replaced and displaced in vast amount. Mergers and reengineering of business has seen the management layers being reduced to a few levels. The security of lifelong employment has also been challenged. Traditional approach to career path where seniority would ensure upward mobility along the career ladder is no longer assured. Lateral moves have become the most common way to reenergize the employees, as companies reduce the levels of management, decrease the number of workers employed, and increased the demand on those who remained (Mondy&Noe 1996). All these changes have put in place the much- celebrated concept of career development.
The changing demographics in the labor market have also given birth to a new breed of employees that differ in their outlook towards work and work life. Job and career changes are increasingly common due to the uncertainties of the economic environment, technological changes, and new attitudes toward work. Career change has become more socially acceptable as personal fulfillment is more highly valued. Other reasons that people seek change are that their initial career was not their choice, their original aspirations were not met, there is insufficient time for other life roles, or the present career is incongruent with changed values or interests (Kerka 1991). Employees are no longer eager to remain loyal to organizations if they can getbetter employment package elsewhere that can help them to fulfill their career aspirations. Herriot (1992) believed that the changes in the next decade, which has already occurred at present, threaten the very existence of many organizations.These changes are the technological change, changing demographics and education, information explosion, globalization, and concern about environment. It can be expected that career advancement opportunities have become more difficult in a global and local context and therefore demanding that more attention needs to be paid to it. This is particularly so in the light of the rapid change in the structure and occupations, some becoming obsolete and some new ones evolving as a result of technological developments, which necessitate two or three occupational changes in a persons work life now and certainly in the years to come. Only those organizations that negotiate careers and have provided suitable career development opportunities will keep the people they need to help them survive.
Job satisfaction has been one of the most extensively discussed and studied concepts in organizational and personnel management, accounting for more than 5000 published works. The information generated by research into this area has practical implications for individuals and organizations alike, as employees strive for the best quality of life possible and managers are faced with the ever- increasing challenge of operating efficient, effective organizations using the human and technological resources available to them. Understanding job satisfaction and what it means is not only a desirable but also a critical aspect of life for both organizations and individuals.
According to Cranny, Smith, & Stone (1992), job satisfaction is generally agreed upon by researchers to be an affective reaction to a job that results from the employee’s comparison of actual outcomes with those that are desired. Locke (1976) equates job satisfaction to morale of workers. Morale according to Guin (1958) is the extent to which the individuals’ needs are satisfied and how the employee views this satisfaction as coming from his/her work. Abraham Maslow’s (1943) theory of hierarchy of needs talks about self-esteem and in particular advancement as one ofthe motivating factors that individual’s look for in their work. Fredrick Herzberg’s (1975) motivation hygiene theory directly addresses the issue of job satisfaction and dissatisfaction. He argues that motivation factors such as advancement opportunities and possibility of growth have the power to increase job satisfaction.
The rapid increase of global competition, day byday renewed technology, growing demand towards better customer service have made constant and fast change an important issue in organizations. Businesses in the present world are operating in a highly competitive and borderless environment. Survival has become a key focus for many of these businesses, and they are constantly seeking for ingredients that can help to establish their competitive advantage (Jayasingam& Yong 2013). Nowadays, managers and employers understand that they cannot obtain a good performance from their employees in a platform where both personal career management and organizational career management practices are absent. They realized that developing new methods is necessary, and they have to make a fundamental change in this matter. Otherwise, it is likely that their competitors will discover the secret power of workers and take action already. One of the roles of the human resource department is to help employees consider potential career routes (Agba, et al., 2010, p. 106). Together with efficiently using human resources that have a strategic importance for organizations, the effects of career development programs -that might provide a competitive advantage- and organizational commitment on the employee’s job satisfaction are chosen as the subject of this study. With no doubt, participation of managers and workers in the processes in the workplace and the necessity of giving responsibility and authority to workers in order to make the decisions applicable have become very crucial nowadays. Participation in decision-making is related to autonomy or empowerment, which are intrinsically motivating (Beehr, et al., 2009, p. 4). Companies that still embrace their old ways of operation, in other words, a centralized hierarchical level in a changing business world will eventually lose their workers and clients to the firms that embrace and internalize the new management style. Now, employees will desire to leave the companies that embrace the old management style and be on the side of employers who are willing to show more respect, give more autonomy and authority. One of the assumptions of the employees hold about their careers is the match between their aspirations and organization’s career system. Organizations sometimes do not seek the match; therefore, dissatisfaction and withdrawal may result (Cartwright, 2005, p. 40). In the modern businessworld nowadays, employers must find a way to notonly recompense for their employees’ labor and effort, but also to draw their souls into the workplace.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Restructuring has brought many changes in employment patterns. Whereas employees looked at job security and broad skills as the main source of job satisfaction restructuring has made organizations now less able to guarantee lifetime job security (Kerka. 1991). With mergers, acquisitions, restructuring and reengineering, Organizations find it difficult to invest in the long-term development oftheir employees. Furthermore the increasing tendency to adopt flatter structures caused by many waves of delayering has affected the ability of many organizations to guarantee promotional opportunities for their employees. This has greatly affected employee career development programs in these organizations .As a result many employees tend to have less satisfaction or lower satisfaction with their jobs (Cranny, et.al. 1992). Thus there appears to be a direct link between career development and job satisfaction yet no studies seem not have been done to address this linkage. This creates a gap in knowledge that the proposed study intends to fill.Job security and advancement are no longer guaranteed in the organizations yet no one has taken interest in the problem.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The main objective of the study is to determine the effect of career development on employee job satisfaction. However, there are some specific objectives which include:
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following research questions will guide the researcher in her research.
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
Based on the research questions, the following null hypotheses are formulated.
H0: There is no significant relationship between employee’s perception of career advancement opportunities and job satisfaction of employees.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Results of the study are expected to be useful to the following:
The findings of this study will help managers in the selected Hospitality firms in appreciating the linkage between career development and employee job satisfaction, and the need to foster same using the potentials of their employees. Managers and practitioners in other organization will also benefit from the work with researchers interested in the area of career development and employee job satisfaction and the general public.
1.7 SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
The scope of this study covers how career development affects employee job satisfaction in selected Hospitality firms in Rivers State. The selected Hospitality firms are Landmark Hotel, Presidential Hotel, Graceland Hotel and The Promise. The unit of analysis is based on individual levels which mean the interviews and the questionnaire would be administered to the individual staff of the firms in Imo State.
Every research work has some limitations that can affect the overall research activities and research report. The researcher had limited time to complete the research. Combining lectures hours with the research work is indeed time demanding. The researcher also had limited resources that in some cases affected the overall completion of the research work. Limited finance and unwillingness of some of the respondents to provide useful information also affect the success of the research.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Career: A person’s structured occupation and involves a steady of progressive advancements which includes how an individual’s work life develops overtime and how it is perceived by that person.
Development:The gradual growth of something so that it becomes more advance, stronger, etc; the process of producing or creating something new or more advanced; a new or advanced product.
Job Satisfaction:The good feeling, happiness or enjoyment that an employee have with his job.