1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Good health is the desire of every individual. The attainment of a good health depends on the individual’s ability to live a positive lifestyle. Good health is difficult to be attained completely as human needs cannot be completely satisfied at any given time. Physically, one maybe healthy, but socially, mentally and otherwise one may not be healthy. Good health is motivated by one’s lifestyle the way we appreciate things that come our way determines how we manage stress which is one of the silent killers. Also, our behaviour or attitude about exercise (physical activates), nutrition, substance (alcohol, drug and cigarette) intake, healthy sexual life amongst others, all determines our health. However, factual information is needed to help the individuals, groups and communities to understand effects of these to their lives. Information affects the perspectives of the recipient enhance should be communicated to the understanding of the people. Information given to clients/ patients should be planned to suit the needs of the people. Different communication tools are often used as part of an effective communication plans and must serve its purpose. The strategic or plans adopted should be skilful to bring about positive change in behaviour. Skilful methods adopted in communication opens means for correct understanding of health problems that affects the folks and incorporate activity amendment. Accomplishment of fine health depends upon adopting healthiness practices and avoiding those practices that square measure harmful to health. Health education encourages healthy practices of life designs, prevents illness, reduces disabilities and promotes the well-being of individuals. Health education that aims at transfer amendment in health behaviour should be tailored to the precise sort of communication and tools that creates the outer sense to the audience. Therefore, Beato, Richrdo and Jana  explained that rising health accomplishment is achieved by disseminative health info that influences personal health selections. “The promotion, maintenance and restoration of health need community health connected info. To promote and sustain healthy behaviour, communication is very important. Health communication serves as the medium that is used to create awareness to the individual group and communities on health related issues. Health promotion provides knowledge, skills and capacity to assist individuals, groups and communities in identifying health needs, obtaining information and resources and mobilizing them to achieve change. However, WHO defined “health promotion as the process of enabling people to increase control over and to improve their health.” Behavioural change is a difficult task to achieve. Hence factual information should be designed to motivate people achieve change in behaviour. Healthy behaviour such as participation in exercise, good nutrition, healthy sexual practices, avoiding of substance (alcohol, drug, cigarettes) abuse, routine medical check among others are practices that promote good health (well-being). “It is written that my people perish due to lack of knowledge” In Nigeria, many people are not aware of the recent health information? This is a pertinent question! Many people are dying out of poverty resulting from lack of information and communication. Onabajo  opines that our rural areas are characterized with high level of sickness and mortality, physical and mental lethargy, inability to sustain hard work on a regular basis, illiteracy, poverty, lack of social amenities and infrastructures. He further, observes that rural communities are characterized by isolation from ideas, information and services, especially on the prevention and total eradication of sickness knowing that 70% of the population resides in the rural communities, characterized with high level of sickness, illiteracy and poverty (Mabogunju, 1981). Most people live in rural areas where transportation of people and commodities is slow and difficult, cutting off access to health centre, markets, social and cultural centres. The pattern of development often means that essential services and improvement such as education and health services reach the rural communities first. It takes a long time for these to be extended to the country side where the bulk of the population lives. Without information to areas, development will be slow, and a sure way of preventing this is through rural programming on radio and television in order to bring about rural development. Advocates of rural development strategies often point out that “the need of rural people is for more practical information”, information that will help them upgrade the production for their land, improve the quality of their diet, and allow them to reduce the incidence of diseases, by adopting better health practices in the home. Onabajo , also confirmed that “because the broadcast media can reach isolated communities swiftest and at a comparatively cheaper rate, emphasis has being on its use in disseminating information messages from capital cities to the periphery in one way communication flow without a recourse to the necessary feedback” This calls for the need to inject rural broadcasting strategies to bring about desirable ideas, information and services and to bridge gap of communication flow. Radio is the focus of this study and should be placed in forefront, in combating the poor attitude of people towards their environment and health in general. For effective grassroots’ mobilization and better creation of awareness, Radio is the only medium of mass communication which makes news of events available to the widest possible audience in developing societies. The Radio’s ability to reach people even in the remotest parts of a country makes it a popular choice as agent of rural development. TV and Internet could be the best tools, but, due to problem of epilepsy of electricity, lack of Internet access and remote nature of most countries in Africa and Nigeria in particular. Radio stands the best tool for effective mobilization. Aspinal , ‘Radio can reach the farthest areas of a country with educational, social, economic, political and cultural programmes that stimulate the normal process of living. Radio can be used to promote and support the causes of nation building in developing countries. For these reasons five Radio strategies such as, open broadcasting, radio study groups, radio rural forum, radio school and radio and animation are recommended for effective grassroots mobilization.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Nigeria, as the most populous country in Africa, always receives the collaborative supports from international donors, government agencies and organizations for its public health communication programmes. Many positive results have followed such programmes in almost all fields of public health practices such as family planning, HIV/AIDS and others. This paper discusses impact of health communication in promoting good living and discovers that a greater number of the population lives in the rural areas of Nigeria and still upholds the old health beliefs. After a critical analysis, it is suggested that public health practices must engage audiences at all times, offer clear and captivating information and must receive feedback. The best approach is considered to be through mass media. The paper concludes that with determination, professional skills, effective approaches and willingness to learn, family planning and health communication programmes should introduce cost sharing approach with the donor nations and agencies in order to achieve a desirable goal. Besides, the issue of the multilingual setting must be addressed so that both linguistic minorities and majorities and the official language, the English language, should be considered in the health communicative programmes in the 21st century in Nigeria.
1.3AIMS OF THE STUDY
The major purpose of this study is to examine the impact of health communication in promoting good living. Other general objectives of the study are:
1. To examine the extent to which radio programme has helped to change the attitude and behaviour of the people towards good and healthy living.
2. To investigate the perception of the communities and their ratings of the health communication programme.
3. To examine the impact of health communication in promoting good living.
4. To examine the use of radio for health communication as an effective method of promoting healthy living among the rural inhabitants.
5. To examine the relationship between health communication and healthy living practices.
6. To examine the factors (challenges) inhibiting access to health communication.
1.2 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. To what extent does radio programme helped to change the attitude and behaviour of the people towards good and healthy living?
2. How are the perception of the communities and their ratings of the health communication programme?
3. What are the impacts of health communication in promoting good living?
4. How is the use of radio for health communication effective in promoting healthy living among the rural inhabitants?
5. What is the relationship between health communication and healthy living practices?
6. What are the factors (challenges) inhibiting access to health communication?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
H01: There is no significant impact of health communication in promoting good living.
H02: There is no significant relationship between health communication and healthy living practices.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This paper provides health professionals and educators with an overview of important issues related to health communication and highlights strategies that facilitate effective communication to help people to make informed decisions about their health care. Theoretically, this study will contribute to the growing field of health communication by providing data on impact of health communication in promoting good living in Nigeria. Since very few indigenous researches have been conducted by scholars in the area, it is hoped that this study will provide a solid theoretical base for such studies in the future. The study is expected to provide a link in the existing gap of literature by sensitizing the government/policy makers, media practitioners, medical practitioners and the public on the need to intensify efforts in promoting good living among Nigerian citizens. Through this study, media practitioners will acquire knowledge on how to create and sustain successful health communication awareness.
1.7SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study is based on impact of health communication in promoting good living among inhabitants of Angwan lambu, Keffi: case study of radio programme on Nasarawa state broadcasting services (NBS)
1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Health Communication: The National Cancer Institute and the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (2010) define Health Communication as “the study and use of communication strategies to inform and influence individual and community decisions that enhance health”. Health communication here means the use of mass communication channels, conventional and traditional, to disseminate health care information.
Impact: The actions of one object coming forcibly into contact with another, a marked effect or influence.
Promoting: The advancement of a product, idea, or point of view through publicity or advertising.Good living: This is a way of life that allows only for things that are seen as good.