1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Waste is seen as something liquid or solid that is of no use or anything useful that is considered less important or less significant; that is why some wastes are recyclable and waste to wealth programs exist. Resource wastage is a pertinent issue in today’s contemporary business literature and it takes different kinds of forms in homes i.e. domestic wastes, communities and businesses. Waste is seen as a thing that is less significant; then it has to be managed effectively, in managing waste strategy like incineration is one of the ways but recycling and other forms has been pointed to be a lucrative means of managing waste as a resource (Olusegun, 2012 and Agidee, 2013). Waste includes: any substance which constitutes a scrap material or an effluent or other unwanted surplus substance arising from the application of any process, and; any substance or article, which requires to be disposed of as being broken, worn-out, contaminated or otherwise spoiled as asserted by Protection Act 1990, Section 75(2). Omole and Isiorho, (2011) showed that a waste is an excess from a production process that can be used in the production of other components or materials. Most suburbs in Bayelsa state is highly polluted with waste products. A waste may either be domestic waste or household wastes, medical waste, solid and liquid waste, industrial waste, such as waste engine oils, ashes, sewage sludge, industrial metals, that government seek to manage effectively to preserve the environment and increase its economic value. It is pertinent to understand the wastes, nature, problems associated with them, and how to dispose them off hygienically. In Nigeria today, there are no sewers or underground drainage system and as a result all liquid wastes find their way into water courses. There are no urinals or toilet facilities in many public areas. Wastes are found everywhere and anywhere. Waste is generated at the rate of 0.43 kg/head per day and 60 to 80 per cent of it is organic in nature (Sridhar 2013; Ogwueleka 2015). A cow brought for slaughtering produces about 328.4 kg of wastes in the form of dung, bone, blood, horn and hoof. Other animals like sheep and rams produce about 0.9 kg waste per head per day (based on observation). In the market a variety of waste is generated, for example, corn cobs, vegetable wastes, packaging materials, etc. The household wastes also contain other materials such as paper, glass, metal, plastic, and other non-biodegradable materials and some of them are excellent raw materials for various industries in the country. People litter the roads with no civic concern. All these wastes contain a lot of valuable resources in the form of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and other chemicals which are useful (Hammed et al. 2011). Microorganisms play an important role in biogeochemical cycles and convert these valuable resources into harmless and useful products. However, there are certain wastes arising from industries or healthcare facilities which may be hazardous, infectious and need to be treated as special wastes. In Bayelsa State, there is need to ensure a healthy living environment and eradicate poverty which has brought about government adopting the effective use and management of waste as a means to wealth creation (Otokiti, 2014). The search for wealth creation is a major concern to individuals and government due to unemployment rate and poverty level in Nigeria. In Nigeria poverty affects the entire population in one way or the other though the levels differ from individual to individual and the widespread of this phenomenon cuts across the rural and urban communities. The concept of poverty cannot be envisaged in a single definition. This is because of the diverse conception of persons who suffer from this ‘disease’. Various methods of poverty alleviation have been adopted by different governments and their machineries. One of the greatest challenges facing state and local government environmental protection agencies in Nigeria are waste management. The volume of waste being generated continues to increase at a faster rate than the ability of the agencies to improve on the financial and technical resources needed to parallel this growth. In Nigeria Waste management is characterized by inefficient collection methods, insufficient coverage of the collection system and improper disposal of waste. In industrialized countries the quantity of waste generated in urban areas is higher than in developing countries; still municipal waste management remains inadequate. Most developing countries, including Nigeria have waste management problems different from those found in industrialized countries in areas of composition, political, density and access to waste for collection, waste amount, economic framework, awareness and attitude. The wastes are heavier, wetter and more corrosive in developing cities than developed cities (Ogwueleka, 2018). Waste-to-Wealth creation literally means moving waste from a platform of exhausted utility to valuable and desirable level. Its transformation: in engineering, requires some sort of energy, and in economics requires factor of production. The latent issue here is that “waste” in itself can never be wealth otherwise generator will never discard it. Likewise, wealth is made and process of making wealth has some cost implications that the economic process construe because of the price. This means that not all wastes are potentially of secondary benefit. In all, “waste-to-wealth connotes that waste management operations must transcend delivery of service to provision of products or value like energy. The aim of this work is to look at the operation of waste management within the State, identify the challenges facing its operation, and make awareness on the necessity to explore opportunities inherent in waste marketplace for environmental and economic benefits.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Bayelsa state is one of the thirty six states in Nigeria with an estimated population of 1,704,515 people. It was the capital of Nigeria before the creation of more state and restructuring of the national administrative offences. Though the country’s capital is in Abuja where many government administrative functions are mainly carried out; yet, Bayelsa state remains the center of commercial nerve of the Niger delta region and its industrial activities contributes reasonably to the gross domestic products (GDP) of the economy. Thus, given the volume of business activities in the state on daily bases, little will one wonder the quantum of waste that will be generated? The increase in urban population in Bayelsa metropolis coupled with household consumption resulting in domestic food waste; production process resulting in industrial waste, with agricultural and medical waste are of serious concern to the inhabitants of the state and the government at large. The poor management of waste could sometimes result in the poor utilization of recyclable waste resources in the state. According to Roberts (2014) effective waste management enhances the significance of economies of scale; this is especially essential in relation to the processing of a common source of raw materials and in the exchange of surplus or waste product. therefore, those resources that are not relevant to the production process may be deemed to be destroyed or improperly disposed instead of finding solution to use them effectively and this is seen as a major environmental challenge. Also the essence of wealth creation cannot be overemphasized due to the increases in unemployment that have brought about an increase in poverty, crime and urban conflicts in Bayelsa state.However, the concept of waste management as it relates to wealth creation has received little attention when juxtaposed with it potential for employment creation in bayelsa State. The effects of wealth creation from waste management are not completely clear. One of the problem government faces is that most of its wealth creation programsand platforms are used as ad-hoc measures and are not particularly directed to the public. Asserted by Olusegun (2012), the positive influence of waste management on wealth creation that is yet to be ascertained in the case of Bayelsa are higher than the negative effects in the wealth creation process.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The major aim of the study is to examine waste management and wealth creation. Other specific objectives of the study include;
1) To assess the level of waste management and wealth creation in Nigeria
2) To examine the roles of waste management in wealth creation of Bayelsa state
3) To the impact of waste management on wealth creation in Nigeria
4) To examine the relationship between waste management and wealth creation
5) To examine the challenges posed by waste management on wealth creation in Nigeria.
6) To recommend solution to problems of waste management in Nigeria.
1.4 Research Questions
1) What is the level of waste management and wealth creation in Nigeria?
2) What are the roles of waste management in wealth creation of Bayelsa State?
3) What is the impact of waste management on wealth creation in Nigeria?
4) What is the relationship between waste management and wealth creation?
5) What are the challenges posed by waste management on wealth creation in Nigeria?
6) What are the solutions to problems of waste management in Nigeria?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
HO: There is no significant impact of waste management on wealth creation in Nigeria
H1: There is a significant impact of waste management on wealth creation in Nigeria.
HO: There is no significant relationship between waste management and wealth creation
H1: There is a significant relationship between waste management and wealth creation
1.6 Scope of the Study
The study is restricted to waste management and wealth creation; a study of Bayelsa state Environmental Sanitation Authority.
1.7 Significance Of the Study
The study would have contribution to enlighten the society on waste management and wealth creationin Nigeria. It would also prepare ground for interested researcher who might wish to conduct further research in related areas and could contribute to the existing literature.
1.8 Organization of the Project Report
This work is organized into five chapters. Chapter one deals with the introduction. This takes a look at the background to the study, statement of the problem, purpose of the study, research questions, research hypothesis, significance of the study and scope of the study as well as the organization of the study. Chapter Two deals with reviewing existing literature that primarily deals with discussions and review of literature related to the concepts of the research. The third chapter describes the methodology adopted for the study. This includes the research design, area of study, population, sample and sampling techniques, research instrument, administration of the questionnaire, and data analysis procedure. Chapter Four comprises compilation, analysis and discussion of data collected from the fieldwork. Chapter Five also looks at the summary of the findings, conclusions and recommendations.