CHAPTER ONE 1.1 Background of the Study
According to Deekor (2013), infrastructures are the set of interconnected structural elements that provide framework supporting an entire structure of development. On the other hand, the services and facilities necessary for an economy to function. Investments in infrastructure and other facilities contribute immensely to the growth of cities. The provision of good and efficient infrastructure is essential for smooth running of the economic sectors in a developing world.
Infrastructure, basically can be classified into physical, social and economical. Physical infrastructure includes transportation infrastructure, communication, water, drainage etc. while social infrastructure includes hospitals, schools etc. lastly economic infrastructure includes financial institutions, agricultural, forestry and fishery infrastructure.
The economic growth of a country has evidently occurred hand in hand with the development of its infrastructure. Economic growth has been viewed as healthy and desirable because it often leads to additional jobs, increased income for residents, a broader tax base, and the enhancement of cultural amenities such as library and parks and when this occurs, property development is not left out.
The efficiency of any form of human activity largely depends on the provision of efficient infrastructure and services (Babarunde, 1998). The quality and coverage of infrastructure services have a major impact on living stand on the people. The observe of drains could possibly lead to flooding, and lack of portage water brings about water borne diseases, bad roads leads to accidents and traffic jams and so on.
Johnson, Davies and Shapiro (2005) opine that one of the determinants of properly value is infrastructure, the presence of which leads appreciation in properly values. It absence affects neighborhood properties adversely. Aibanbee (1997) explains that accessibility, which is a direct consequence of good road network in turn, leads to high rental values of location with greater accessibility.
It is therefore worthy to say that public infrastructure apart from being a major pointer environmental quality is a critical agent for the socio-economic development of an urban area (Okusipe, 1999), and it plays an important and indispensible role in the environmental social and economical aspect of life.
1.2 Statement of Problem
The problems leading to the research are put in the following statements.
That the basic physical infrastructure provided in the area are old, obsolete, and does not met up current trend as far as property development is concerned. The transportation infrastructure e.g roads and streets are narrow, filled with potholes, and causes traffic problems resulting in long terms journey.
Again, is communication infrastructure. The Obasanjo civilian administration under People Democratic Party (PDP) 1999 – 2004 tends to break the yolk of communication barrier in Nigeria. Within the period there was move from the analogue rotary system to the digital system. The cell phones or what is now called headsets are owned by almost every adult easing or breaking communication difficulties.
Furthermore, is the issue of power / electricity. Electricity serves so many purposes one of which is that it is used to power our headsets for easy communication. Again any neighbourhood with good electricity supply is lively and attracts various types of business and land uses. But the issue is “do we have constant electricity supply”?
Water infrastructure is another basic problem.
“Water, water everywhere but there is no water”. We mean portable water supply. Government every year budgets huge amounts of money for the provision of portable water to the public. It is annoying to say that Port Harcourt city local government and its environment lacks portable water even though there is the almighty Bernard Carr street Government pumping station and the Borikiri Government pumping station mounted with high capacity aeration and steel receptacles. It is very sad.
1.3 Aim and Objectives of the Study
The aim of the study is to examine the impact of public infrastructure on residential property development in Borikiri, Rivers State. In order to achieve the above mentioned aim, the following specific objectives are set.
To examine the various types of physical infrastructure that are essential.
To examine the effects/benefits of physical infrastructure on land and landed properties.
To examine the constraints of effective service delivery of urban infrastructure.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions are set to guide the study;
1.5 Scope of the Study
The research is limited to the appraisal of the impact of public infrastructure on residential property development, taking Borikiri, Port Harcourt, Rivers State as the case study.
An attempt would be made to identity the various physical infrastructures that will enhance the efforts will also be made to discuss the effect/benefit the various infrastructure would have on the residential properties. This study will also take into consideration the constraints or limitations of effective delivery of infrastructure.
1.6 Area OF The Study
Borikiri (also spelt Borikiri) is a neighbourhood in the city of Port Harcourt situated just south old G.R.A in Rivers State, Nigeria. It lies at latitude 407 490N and longitude 7,0350E. The neighbourhood is bounded by Ahoada street to the North, Okrika Island to the East (across Abotura creek) Orubin oil field to the south and ship Builders road to the west. Its land uses include residential, commercial, institutional and recreational. It has a time zone of +1 (West African time) and zip code of 500244.
Borikiri is a fast growing neighbourhood of Port-Harcourt. It is surrounded by mangrove swamps, which places physical limits to its growth as a result both government and individuals have restored to reclamation to assuage the demand for land in the area.
The physical layout of the neighbourhood do not conform with existing town planning regulations, basic utilities are banking. The environmental quality is poor and property values, though comparable to other areas of the same distance from the city centre and quality. In Port-Harcourt is higher.
Regrettably, there is only one route to the area, the road which could have served as an alternative is the Borikiri- Okrika road but it has been abandoned.
The area plays host to some government, private, institutions, agencies and facilities. These includes: Nigeria Navy School, tourist beach, ship builders companies, kirikiri market, New layout market, Enitonia High School, Government Comprehensive Secondary School, New covenant Secondary School, Our Lady of Fatima College Naval and Police Barracks.
In terms of human population, Borikiri has a demographically heterogeneous population of the Ijaw tribe-Okrika, Kalabari, Nembe, Ogoni’s and others according to the National Population commission (2006 census estimate) Borikiri has a population of 6,047 persons with the average growth rate of 35%.
1.7 Limitation of the Study
The conduct of the study was constrained by some factors, which limited the effective execution of the research study.
Some of the constraints in this study include:
1.8 Significance of the Study
The research work is carried out to know the impact of public infrastructure on residential property development.
Therefore, the significance of the study is to help students to expand the frontiers of knowledge concerning the research topic; also help potential developers to know the relevant infrastructure that would be needed for the development of their proposed projects, as this would help them avoid areas without such infrastructure. The study will also help landlords to know the worth and value of their properties, as properties located to where there are good infrastructures would command more rent. In the same way, tenant would choose the areas with availability of infrastructure. Furthermore, the study will help Estate surveyors and valuers to determine areas with high land value and those with lower land values. Finally, the study would be useful to government so to know areas with higher land value and impose tenement rate on them; also the infrastructure available broadens the tax base to the government e.g water rate etc.
Generally, the research work is done for the entire public (audience) to acquaint themselves on the essence and impact of lack of public infrastructure on both the environment and residents, and taking appropriate measures in the provision, maintenance and use of these public infrastructure by the government and the residents of the urban area
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