TABLE OF CONTENTS
CERTIFICATION – – – – – – – – i
DEDICATION – – – – – – – – – ii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT – – – – – – – iii
TABLE OF CONTENTS – – – – – – – iv
LIST OF TABLES – – – – – – – – – vi
ABSTRACT – – – – – – – – – vii
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY – – – – – 1
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM – – 3
1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY – – – 4
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS – – – – – – 5
1.5 THE STUDY AREA – – – – – – – 5
1.5.1 CLIMATE – – – – – – – – 6
1.5.2 VEGETATION – – – – – – – 7
1.5.3 SOILS/TOPOGRAPHY – – – – – – 7
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY – – – – – 7
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY – – – – – – 8
1.8 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY – – – – – 8
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS – – – – – – 9
2.1 CLIMATE CHANGE – – – – – – – 11
2.2 IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON REAL
ESTATE DEVELOPMENT – – – – – – 13
2.3 CAUSES OF CLIMATE CHANGE – – – – – 14
2.4 CONSEQUENCES OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON HUMAN – 15
2.5 CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION OPTIONS – – 16
3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN – – – – – – – 19
3.2 POPULATION OF THE STUDY – – – – – 19
3.3 SAMPLE FRAME AND SIZE – – – – – 20
3.4 SAMPLING TECHNIQUES – – – – – – 20
3.5 INSTRUMENTATION – – – – – – 21
3.6 METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION – – – – 21
3.7 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS – – – – – 21
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.1 QUESTIONNAIRE DISTRIBUTED AND RETRIEVED – 23
4.2 ANALYSIS OF QUESTIONS RAISED IN THE
QUESTIONNAIRE – – – – – – – 24
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, RECOMMEDNATIONS AND CONCLUSION
5.1 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS – – – – – – 33
5.2 RECOMMENDATIONS – – – – – – 35
5.3 CONCLUSION – – – – – – – – 36
REFERENCES – – – – – – – – – 38
APPENDIX I – – – – – – – – – 40
APPENDIX II: QUESTIONNAIRE – – – – – 41
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.10 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Climate change is already being felt in Nigeria through increasing temperatures, rising sea levels, floods, drought and changes in seasonal attributes. These observations are becoming more frequent as well as intense. With rising carbon levels which are fall-outs of ignorance, illiteracy, unwholesome culture and poverty, climate change is likely to get worse. Climate change was once considered to be static, possibly because of the long period of time it takes for a change to occur. Sometimes generations come and go without any marked change in climate. Both weather and climate are made within the atmosphere, and as a result, even small variations in the general circulation of the atmosphere are nearly always reflected in changes in the weather and climatic elements. If these changes persist over a long period of time there could be a shift in type of climate prevailing over a given area, thereby resulting in a change in climate (Ayaode, 1983). Changes in climate are not strange to the world since before of warm and cool periods which include the ice ages that occurred between 2.5 million and 10,000 years ago (Chima and Moses, 2010).
The southern climatic region experiences drainage congestion due to high water and river bed levels, salinization of soils and water resources due to lower river flows, sea level rise, storm surges and submergence of coastal cities, increasing temperature due to gas flaming and other consequences associated with oil spillage, high population density and intanigation (Ogbonna, 2010).
Considering the study area Port-Harcourt, as a low lying region, population density, soil types, temperature activities practiced, the researchers discovered that real estate development and practice has been given a sense of belonging and has come to stay from the last administration 2007 till date because estate surveyors and valuers has taken their position in the state from quackery. With regard to real estate development and climate change impact in the chosen location, major challenges are flooding, acid rain and higher temperatures.
1.11 STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM
Climate change impact on real estate development in Nigeria especially in Port Harcourt has been a source of worry to government, corporate organizations, individual and the public who reside or do business in the city of Port Harcourt. With the recent weather forecast by the National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA) that some local government areas in the state will be flooded, as a result of dam opening in Cameroun, this announcement, considering what happened in 2012 flooding, real estate development is in real danger and already developed land (Built environment) is also threatened. Don’t forget the fact that, climate change propels the incursion of floods and its attendant problems. The researchers also understand that, when the land is affected by flood, it affects real estate development drastically because money that was to be used in developing dry land will be diverted to hire machines that will drain the water away and constructing pile foundation instead of the normal strip foundation. Under intense temperature, the work is also hampered along with corroded roofs as a result of acid rain experienced in the city of Port Harcourt as the study area. All these aforementioned points will be addressed by the study, because it cuts across every segment of real estate development in Nigeria.
1.12 AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The aim of this research is to ascertain the impact of climate change on real estate development in Port Harcourt. Therefore, the following objectives will be pursued.
iii. To identify further damage done to the already built property.
1.13 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The research questions that needs to be asked and answered at the end of this work are stated thus:
iii. Does climate change damaged already built property?
1.14 THE STUDY AREA
The study area is the metropolitan Port Harcourt which suggest that Port Harcourt city Local Government Area and its environs is where the research centers. The study area is one of the 23 L.G.As in Rivers State, bounded by the north Obio-Akpor, in the West by Asaritoru, in the East by Eleme and in the South by Ogu/Bolo and Okrika respectively.
The area displays climatic characteristics that are classified as humid, semi-hot equitorial type with heavy rainfall (NDES, 1997). There are two types of season that are experienced in the study area, the dry season and the rainy season. The rainy season begins from March and ends in October. The dry season starts from November and ends in February but not entirely free from occasional rainfall (Gobo, 1990) the mean annual rainfall amount varies from 2500mm to 3000mm. temperatures are dependent upon cloud cover and air which is generally damped. Sunshine is generally very tense in the afternoon while evening is a bit cold. The mean monthly temperature for the area throughout the year ranges from 240C to 320C. The maximum mean monthly temperature are recorded in the months of February and March, just before the commencement of the rainy season.
Climate determines the type of vegetation that can exist in an area in Nigeria. The mean annual rainfall and the severity of the dry season as the two parameters used by climate and that the climax vegetation in the Niger Delta Region is tropical rainforest. In some parts of the study area, mangrove forest, fresh water swamp forest and Dry land rainforest (Gobo, 2004).
The soil types in the study area are aluminum, coarse sand, clay and silt. The area lies in a flat terrain consisting of level to gently undulated sandy plins but not without areas of isolated depressions.
1.15 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study is more significant to the study area because no one in the department had ever made an attempt to embark on this research. That is why at the end, people will now see in practical terms what the menace of climate change has already done to landed property, when it comes to development. Beneficiaries are many ranging from students who may wish to carry out further research on the subject matter, the polytechnic community, the department and the location where the study is done. Recommendations drawn can further strengthen the development of real estate amidst climate change.
1.16 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope defines research location which is metropolitan Port Harcourt and its environs. Following the research topic carefully, professionals in the ministry of environment will be interviewed, those in urban development and few real estate developers will also be interviewed. So that first hand information can be gathered or collected from them to enhance the speedy completion of this project.
1.17 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
Constraints anticipated in the area is the administration of questionnaire to the people, because they were scared of answering questions from persons they are not familiar with particularly from this part of Nigeria were strange things are happening. Most buildings in the area are walled and entering such premises will be a huge risk. Hence, it takes much time to enlighten the people on the subject matter before they could accept to collect the questionnaires.
Materials for this work was also scarce to find, financial involvement looking for data was difficult coupled with test, assignments and examination. Mostly the duration given by the school or department to complete and defend. There were some of the hiccups experienced during when this work started though it ended successfully.
1.18 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Notable terms will be defined in this work to ensure clarity and eradication of doubts.
Impact: The detrimental situation that result due to interaction between man and land.
Climate change: Higher than normal temperatures being experienced on the earth’s surface.
Real estate: Land and its resources, upgrades and improvements.
Real estate development: A concise efforts by man to see that land is well structured, planned, developed, even build upon for the benefit of man.
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