1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Nigeria recently encounters a number of problems which can only be curb if it has innovative, well educated, and entrepreneurial citizens who, whatever their walks of life, have the spirit and inquisitiveness to meditate in new ways, and the motivation to encounter and adapt to the problems facing them. Moreover, a changing economy, which is innovative and able to nurture youths who will launch and independently develop their own commercial or social ventures, or who will become innovators in the wider establishments in which they work, is surely what Nigeria really needs at this point in time to scale through her challenges. Entrepreneurship teaching is important not only to shape the mindsets of youths but also to provide the necessary skills and knowledge that are vital to developing an entrepreneurship culture. Entrepreneurship teaching helps to equip students with the required knowledge, skills and motivation to motivate entrepreneurial success in a variety of endeavors (Wikipedia, 2013). It is made of all kinds of experiences that provide students the capability and vision of how to initiate and transform opportunities of different kinds (UNESCO, 2008). It is beyond business creation. It is about improving students’ ability to anticipate and respond to societal innovations. It is also seen by UNESCO as teaching and training which enables students to develop and use their creativity and to take initiative, responsibilities and risks. The views above shows that entrepreneurship teaching by its scope, nature and features is a rebranding education culture meant to assure a comprehensive educational system re-engineering arising from the obvious deficiencies of the existing education system (Enu, 2012). It is aimed at equipping the students with academic knowledge, requisite skills of creativity, innovative and risk taking, ability to turn ideas into action and capacities needed in the world of work, as well as the ability to plan and manage projects in order to achieve objectives. It develops in the learners the mindsets, generic attributes and skills that are the foundations of entrepreneurship. Developing entrepreneurship characteristics and skills in schools at the early age increases awareness of career opportunities, as well as of ways youths can contribute to the development and prosperity of their communities (Karen, 2009). An education of such magnitude helps youths maximize their full human potential and maintain their place in society as productive, responsible and democratic citizens. One of the main concerns of governments is how to calm the ever rising tide of unemployment and achieve appreciable success in wealth creation and poverty eradication in line with the objectives of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and Vision 20:2020( Ogueri, 2013). Stakeholders in education have exhibited with fear the unfortunate trend on which our higher institutions yearly turn out graduates who roam the streets daily in search of jobs that are non-existing and have placed this ugly phenomenon on the door step of a dysfunctional education system that has structurally failed to capture the dynamic nature of education as agent of transformation and a catalyst for individual and societal self-reliance (Ogueri, 2013). In a positive reaction to this development government in 2007 revised the curriculum of universities to include entrepreneurship education. Citizen’s economic empowerment is a major goal of most developing countries such as Nigeria. The high population growth rate in Nigeria in the last decades (estimated at 4.3% annually) has been associated with a youth bulge and high level of unemployment; especially among school leavers. These have resulted to associated social problems such as high rural-urban migration, underemployment and illegal immigration across national and continental boundaries. To reverse this trend, especially as it affects graduates’ unemployment, the government of Nigeria in 2011 introduced entrepreneurial education (EEd) as a compulsory curriculum in University with the aim of preparing graduates for entrepreneurial success through private sector initiative. This was based on the hard reality that universities should change their orientation as mills for job seekers rather than job creators. This initiative was to serve as the flagship to drive economic and social reconstruction against the backdrop of youth unemployment and the thousands of school leavers every year. Ojiefo (2012) reported that rising graduate unemployment and the low entrepreneurial drive amongst school leavers in Nigeria, led to the need to reposition higher institutions as centers for building self-sustaining graduates that will be future captains of industries. EEd was introduced in tertiary institutions to produce graduates with special professional and entrepreneurial skills needed to champion economic growth through investments. While studies abound on the importance as well as the private and social benefits of EEd to the economy, there is a dearth of information on the comprehensive implementation challenges review of the EEd in Nigeria; to map its prospects and challenges in such a way as to reposition it for impact.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Entrepreneurship education is a relatively new academic discipline. The study of it has been as important as it is today when the world is confronted with big challenges that extend well beyond the global economy. The education system before now was directed at the production of graduates for government employment without taking cognizance of the labour market. The menacing problem of unemployment and poverty spurred the Nigerian government into developing a policy framework for youth entrepreneurship education. It has also been spurred by the realization of the extent to which the phenomenon serves as a key factor in economic development. However, the benefits notwithstanding, despite the great prospects of EEd, the programme is being hindered by so many factors. Considering the potentials of EEd, these challenges must be addressed as a matter of urgency if the nation actually wants to wriggle out of the problems of unemployment for the youths and the illuming poverty that besiege her citizens. No country can as a matter of fact move forward technologically, industrially and economically without developing strong private partner initiate in the creation of wealth, poverty alleviation and employment generation with the required skills.
1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The major aim of the study is to examine challenges and prospect of entrepreneurship education in Abia State University. Other specific objectives of the study include;
1. To examine the prospects of entrepreneurship teaching in Nigeria universities
2. To examine the challenges of entrepreneurship teaching in Nigerian universities.
3. To examine the impact of entrepreneurship teaching on job creation among university graduates.
4. To examine the key issues in entrepreneurship teaching that limits its implementation in Nigerian universities.
5. To examine the relationship between entrepreneurship teaching on job creation among university graduates
6. To examine strategies for improving entrepreneurship education in Nigerian universities
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1 What are the prospects of entrepreneurship teaching in Nigeria universities?
2 What are the challenges of entrepreneurship teaching in Nigerian universities?
3 What is the impact of entrepreneurship teaching on job creation among university graduates?
4 What are the key issues in entrepreneurship teaching that limits its implementation in Nigerian universities?
5 What is the relationship between entrepreneurship teachings on job creation among university graduates?
6 What are strategies for improving entrepreneurship education in Nigerian universities?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
H0: There is no significant impact of entrepreneurship teaching on job creation among university graduates
H1: There is a significant impact of entrepreneurship teaching on job creation among university graduates
H0: There is no significant relationship between entrepreneurship teachings on job creation among university graduates.
H1: There is a significant relationship between entrepreneurship teachings on job creation among university graduates
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study would be of benefit to enlighten management of educational systems at all levels on the need to sit up and to concern themselves with the development of sound human capital required for national development. The study would also be of immense benefit to students, researchers and scholars who are interested in developing further studies on the subject matter.
1.7 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The study is restricted to challenges and prospect of entrepreneurship education in Abia State University.
LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
Financial constraint: Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview)
Time constraint: The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Teaching: According to Gage, "Teaching is a form of interpersonal influence aimed at changing the behavior potential of another person." Edmund Amidon defined it as-" Teaching is an interactive process, primarily involving class room talk which takes place between teacher and pupil and occurs during certain definable activity." Brubacher," Teaching is an arrangement and manipulation of a situation in which an individual will seek to overcome and from which he will learn in the course of doing so." Skinner- Teaching is the arrangement of contingencies of reinforcement."
University: a high-level educational institution in which students study for degrees and academic research is done.