CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION
BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
This work provides the overview of the major underlying causes of secondary school dropout and its effects in some selected secondary school in Ovia North East local government area of Edo State, Nigeria. The subject is directly related to two benchmarks being addressed by many of Georgia’s country collaborative increase the percentage of students who graduates from school on time’ and “reduce the percentage of students absent 10 days or more from school annually”. The hope is that by understanding the underlying root causes of dropout in secondary schools and its key component a collaborative can examine relevant data for their local community and develop a comprehensive strategy that produces results.
In the ancient time, we have formal or traditional educational system which Nigerian’s or indigenous people used to educate their own children this is what has been called occupational education before the coming of the Europeans and their western education to Nigeria.
The purpose of this type of education was to make the young ones grow up in such a way that, they will understand the society into which they were born, acquired the knowledge, skill understand the attitude and appreciate the culture. However the general education sill have area of specialization which includes palm fruit, packing hunting, carpentering, etc.
As a result of the missionary activities in Nigeria, a formal type of education was established with the aim of training people who can read, understand and interpret the bible. The aim also was to produce people who would be of service too the member of the trinity of colonialism and church. The white-collar jobs which the formal education provided, made many citizen to attend schools, some of them did not complete their educational career due to economics, social and physical handicaps that will be exhaustively dealt with in subsequent chapters.
Every year a great number of students dropout of school due to some factors such as ill health, attitude of teacher and peer group influence. Those who drooped out of school constitute nuisance in the society. They can either be found roaming in the street or seeking for opportunity to steal. However a lot of these dropouts involves themselves in crimes and eventually end up in prison and in extreme cases executed for armed robbery offence.
The Georgia Academy defines school dropout as situation whereby students leaves school for one reason or the other without graduating, this bring a threat to him or her. Georgia academy believes that school is the right of every child even those in the rural areas of the localities. Since the mid 20th century many countries have discarded their previous selective schools systems, in which students early on were separated between academic and vocational tracks, in favour of more comprehensive schools. The effect of those reforms have generally been difficult to evaluate and their consequences for students educational and labor market outcomes remains disputed.
This work evaluates the effects of the introduction of a more comprehensive secondary school system in Nigeria in the 1990s. The reform reduced the differences between the academic and vocational educational tracks through prolonging and substantially increasing the academic content of all vocational tracks. The effect of this policy change are identified by exploiting a six year pilot scheme, which proceeded the actual reform in some municipalities. The result shows that the prolongation of the vocational tracks brought about an increased probability of dropping out of school among low performing students. Though one important motive behind the policy change was to enable all secondary schools graduates to pursue a university degree.
I find no effect on university enrolment or graduation. There are some indications, however, that attending the longer and more academic vocational track may have led to increase earning in the long run. The Georgia sees the following as some of the causes of dropouts in secondary schools.
Disabilities – students with disabilities are also more likely to dropout. The national transition study estimates that as many as 36.4% of disabled youths dropout before completing a diploma or certificate course.
Occupation aspiration – young people in the locality perceptions of the economic opportunities available to them also play a role in their decision to dropout of or stay in school. Dropouts often have lower occupational aspirations than their peers. Young people give these reasons for dropping out of school. According to a National Longitudinal study conducted by the United State department of education statistics three (3) here is a summary of the key reason why students dropped out.
a. School related
i. Did not like school
ii. Could not get along with teachers
iii. Was falling school
b. Job related
i. Could not work and go to school the same time.
ii. Had to get a job
iii. Found a job
c. Family related
i. Was pregnant
ii. Became parent
iii. Got married
The effects of dropping out of school in recent years, advances in technology, have fueled the demand for a highly skilled labour force, transforming a secondary school education into a minimum requirement for entry into the labour market.
Because secondary school completion has become a basic prerequisite for many entry-levels jobs, as well as secondary education, the economic consequences of leaving secondary school without a diploma are severe.
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
In carrying out this study, it is necessary to identify the possible causes and effect of school dropout in Ovia North East Local Government Area. They include the following: -
1. Financial problem could hamper schooling.
2. Loss of parents or sponsor could hinder school
3. Unhealthy human relationships in school, quarrel, hatred, fighting etc can cause dropout in secondary school.
4. Low mental ability can make a student to dropout of school.
5. Academic factors: National research also indicates that academic factors are clearly related to dropping out. Students who receive poor grades, who repeat a grade or who are average for their class are likely to dropout.
6. Students who have poor attendance for reasons other than illness are more likely to drop out of school.
7. Young people in the locality perception of the economic opportunities available to them also play a role in the decision to dropout of school.
PURPOSE OF STUDY
The purpose of this study is to find out the causes and effects of school dropout in the locality.
The researcher wants to know the problem face by students in secondary school, which lead to dropout.
Also the researcher wants to know the effects of these dropouts in the society or locality.
The researcher also wants to know the causes of these problems that are faced by students, which leads to their dropout from secondary schools.
The researcher wants to find solution to the problems of school dropout in Ovia North East Local Government Area of Edo state.
To provide solution to the stated problem, the following research questions, were put forward:
1. Do students dropout because of financial problem to meet their basic needs?
2. Does broken home cause students to dropout of students from school?
3. Does poor students and teacher’s relationship cause school dropout?
4. To what extent does participation in secret cults cause dropout in secondary school?
5. Does race-ethnicity bring about dropout in secondary schools?
6. Does early marriages causes dropout in secondary schools.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The significance of this study is that, it will help us to produce manpower needed in our society and also how to minimize the causes and effect of dropout in secondary school. Also to provide solutions to these problems and look for ways to eradicate the problems of dropout in these secondary schools. This is done through the creation of awareness and letting the students to be informed at the right time or given the right information will go along way to reduce or even eradicate dropout in secondary schools.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
1. School dropout: Means student who after gaining admission into secondary school due to one reason or another are unable to complete their school career.
2. Delinquency: Illegal or immoral behaviour especially by young people.
3. Hooligan: Rough person who fight and makes noise in the streets.
4. Inchastised: Not discipline
5. Permissive: Act of allowing
6. Prerequisite: What must take place before something else is done.
7. Nuisance: A student that trouble or problems.
8. Hamper: To prevent somebody from easily doing or achieving something.
9. Tracks: To follow the progress or development of somebody.
10. Prolonged: To stay long in educational career.
11. Discarded: To get out of school before completion of education career.
12. Disputed: A situation whereby there is no friendly relationship between students is disagreement between the two parties.
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