1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Unemployment in Nigeria has affected the rural areas and the economic development of the country from a broad spectrum of socio-economic perspective. It is obvious that the situation especially that of rural unemployment affected Nigeria's progress in several ways. Citizens particularly youths in rural areas are said to be confronted with poverty and unemployment which is caused by lack of capacity and essential productive skills for both creative employment in existing organizations and for self-employment (Sagagi, 2010). Many people are unemployed because they have not acquired the kind of skills that are frequently demanded in the environment they operate. Others are unemployed because their skills have been rendered obsolete by technological changes or because they have no skills at all (Kpakol, 2006). With inadequate skills and few opportunities, particularly the youths in the rural areas face a future of low-wage employment, unemployment and underemployment in the informal sector with little security and prospects (Dandago & Muhammad, 2014). The expansion of employment opportunities in the rural areas is far below the growth in population because of lack of productive skills and investments.
Unemployment has become so visible in the developed countries that the economist and politicians cannot do without seeking its causes and its alleviation. Naturally they wonder whether income distribution would be improved if only the unemployed were to be employed. Unemployment is no limited to labour but extended to all resources inputs, unemployment and employment often considered only in relation to labour, unemployment as we shall see takes different forms of causes in all society there are people, who children of school age and the sick. Unemployment, a form of labour market distress, can pose significant challenges for individuals and families. People want jobs that provide enough hours of work and pay wages that, when taken together; offer a family-sustaining level of income. Unemployment rate statistics show a remarkably persistent gap between rural and urban counties since at least the mid-1970s. Although rural and urban unemployment rates have tended to move in unison with national business cycles, unemployment rates in the state’s rural counties have always been higher than in urban counties for at least the last 30 years. As high unemployment and underemployment are common and persistent problems in many parts of the commonwealth, one of the most pressing policy questions is how unemployment in the rural areas can be reduced. Unemployment rates in rural areas have surpassed urban rates since at least the 1970s, according to county-level data from the state Department of Labour and Industry. Over the 10-year period of 1996 to 2006, rural unemployment rates were, on average, about 1 percentage point higher than urban rates. To determine the unemployment rate, it is necessary to define the labour force which is employed and unemployed in the society. This influences the human environment the impact of the unemployment was not initially felt in the society because of the oil boom in the country. Unemployment in a particular economy can affect the economy stability of the nation especially politically and otherwise. It is also about under utilization of human and material resources a reduced aggregate demand for goods and services as well as a like frustration, depression acts of delinquency and increase in the rate of all sorts of crime.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
There has been a general outcry on the persistent rise in the unemployment rate in Nigeria. This has led an army of angry and desperate unemployed prowling cities and the unending influx of youth into the urban area which has now posed further threat to an already precarious state of national security (Hernando 2013). The unemployment situation has denied its victims their legitimate means of livelihood, and in order to survive, they now involved in all forms of criminality which threaten the peace of the society. The informal sector which ought to be a saving grace for the unemployed has continued to suffer from comprehensive absence of Social protection, vocational education facilities, access to the business friendly credits, unfair competition through dumping of manufactured goods from more industrialized countries, inadequate infrastructure, lack of representation and participation in decision-making processes resulting in unworkable, corruption prone public policies and programmes that have failed significantly to solve the problems in the rural areas. It is against this background that this research is being carried out. It is unfortunate that the rural areas are being threatened by unemployment whose impact on Nigeria’s sustainable development cannot be overemphasized. The social vices that have characterized the nation such as armed robbery, trafficking, kidnapping, terrorism, prostitution among others cannot be unconnected with unemployment crisis, the rate at which is alarming today. Until adequate measures are taking, the future of rural development will be a mirage.
1.3AIMS OF THE STUDY
The major purpose of this study is to examine the problems of unemployment in rural areas. Other general objectives of the study are:
1. To examine Unemployment and types.
2. To examine the causes of unemployment in rural areas.
3. To examine the effects of unemployment in the rural areas.
4. To examine the problems of unemployment in the rural areas.
5. To examine the relationship between unemployment and rural areas.
6. To suggest ways in which government can help in curbing unemployment.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. What is Unemployment and types?
2. What are the causes of unemployment in rural areas?
3. What are the effects of unemployment in the rural areas?
4. What are the problems of unemployment in the rural areas?
5. What is the relationship between unemployment and rural areas?
6. What are the possible ways in which government can help in curbing unemployment?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
H0: There is no effect of unemployment in the rural sector.
H1: There is a significant effect of unemployment in the rural sector.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The problems of unemployment in rural areas are extremely great due to the fact that it has a big effect on our nation. The rate of crime is increasing rapidly because of unemployment when people are unemployed a lot of thought always come to them. There is absolute need to discover solution in other to alienate or reduce this infirmity which is eating deeply into our economy. Those that are employed have a lot of dependant to cater for. So many graduates are roaming the street without jobs and those have jobs are poorly paid or rewarded for the services rendered. The resources in our society should not be underutilized rather it should be effectively criticized so as to create an avenue for employment opportunity.
1.7SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study is based on the problems of unemployment in rural areas: case study of Kalgo L.G.A, Kebbi state.
1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Unemployment: According to the advances learners’ dictionary, unemployment is the number of people without a paid job”. Unemployment generally is a situation in which persons who are willing and able to work are not employed. Unemployment therefore, means that a person capable of and willing to work is unable o find suitable paid employments in the production of goods and services required in the community society.
Rural Area: Are areas which are not towns or cities. They are often farming or agricultural areas. These areas are sometimes called "the country" or "countryside". People who live "in the country" often live in small villages, but they might also live somewhere where there are no other houses nearby.