The study has examined the relationship between work place spirituality and organizational effectiveness. The survey research design was employed. The population of the study comprises one hundred and seventy eight (178) senior and junior staff from the Human resources department records of the two selected exploratory oil firms in Rivers State. The Taro yemen’s formula was used to determine the sample size of 142. In this study both the primary and secondary data were used. Data collection was done using a structured questionnaire. A self-design questionnaire on workplace spirituality and organizational effectiveness was used specifically for data collection. The method used to analyze the data was simple descriptive method stated in tables and expressed in percentage. the chi-square statistical test was employed. The hypotheses will be tested electronically with SPSS Version 22. The study revealed that search for meaning, sense of communion and search for value and organizational effectiveness. Based on the finding of the study, we recommend that further studies should be conducted to acknowledge and reward employee achievement in an organization, an effort should be made by an organization to show commitment to employees. Organizations need to show their employees that they are valued and an effort should be made to help employees feel comfortable expressing themselves and their ideas provide them with immediate feedback.
Table of Contents
Title Page i
List of Tables x
List of Figures xi
CHAPTER 1 1
1.1 Background of the Study 1
1.2 Statement of Problems 2
1.3 Purpose and Objectives of the Study 3
1.4 Research Questions 3
1.5 Statement of Hypotheses 4
1.6 Significance of the Study 4
1.7 Scope of the Study 5
1.8 Limitation of the Study 5
1.9 Definition of Terms 6
CHAPTER 2 8
RELATED REVIEW 8
2.1 Conceptual Framework 8
2.1.1 Concept of Workplace Spirituality 8
2.1.2 Dimensions of Workplace Spirituality 12
2.1.3 Concept of Organizational Effectiveness 12
2.1.4 Measures of Organizational Effectiveness 16
2.1.5 The Relationship between Workplace Spirituality and Organizational Effectiveness 17
2.2 Theoretical Framework 18
2.3 Empirical review 18
CHAPTER 3 21
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 21
3.1 Research Design 21
3.2 Population of the Study 21
3.3 Sample Size Determination 22
3.4 Sampling Techniques 23
3.5 Source and Method of Data Collection 23
3.6 Methods of Data Collection 24
3.7 Questionnaire Design 25
3.6 Data Analytical Techniques 25
3.7 Reliability and Validity 26
CHAPTER 4 27
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS 27
4.1 Data Collection and Presentation 27
4.2 Data Analysis 28
4.3 Hypotheses Testing 31
4.3 Discussion of Findings 34
CHAPTER 5 36
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 36
5.1 Summary 36
5.2 Conclusion 37
5.3 Recommendations 38
Appendix I 43
Appendix II 44
List of Tables
Table 4.1: Questionnaire Administration and Retrieval 27
Table 4.2: showing the age of respondents 28
Table 4.3: Showing the Gender/Sex of Respondents 28
Table 4.4: Showing the Educational Qualification of the Respondents 29
Table 4.5: Showing the Marital Status of Respondents 29
Table 4.6: Search for Meaning and Organizational Effectiveness 30
Table 4.7: Sense of Communion and Organizational Effectiveness 30
Table 4.8: Search for Value and Organizational Effectiveness 31
List of Figures
Fig. 2.1: A Conceptual Framework Showing the Relationship Between Workplace Spirituality and Organizational Effectiveness 8
1.1 Background of the Study
Organizational effectiveness is defined in many ways depending on the organization’s goals and objectives in today’s market, and also is dependent on the industry (Mohr and Zoghi, 2006). According to Mohr and Zoghi, (2006) organizational effectiveness is dependent on ten attributes/characteristics. He further stated ten characteristics that those highly effective organizations exhibit. They are, clarity of the organization’s mission, the power of leadership vision, adherence to shared values throughout the organization, cohesiveness, balanced team of leaders, clear and measurable goals and objectives, mechanisms for external feedback and input, a desire to learn continuously, pursuit of excellence, competent planning and decision-making processes, periodic celebrations of nobility of the work and collective accomplishments. In a similar view, Raze and Nawaz, (2011) concluded that there are eight practices of highly effective organizations. They entail balanced values, commitment, culture, communication, partnering, collaboration, innovation and risk, and competitive passion. Stating what an organization is supposed to look like and how it should function is easy. The hard part is how to get there and practicing the characteristics of an effective organization. One construct that can enhance organizational effectiveness is workplace spirituality. Workplace spirituality within the scholarship of management has experienced exponential growth over the last decade of the twentieth Century and even into the new millennium. As aptly stated by Galen and West (1995), a growing number of companies are setting off into spiritual journey. It’s not about bringing religion into the office or requiring that employees chant mantras at work stations. Rather, the spiritually movement in the corporation is an attempt to crate a connection between the company and its people.
Although, the interlace between spirituality and well being is impressively acknowledge (George Larson, Koeing and Mc Collough 2000); Pacoutzion, Emmons and Keortge, 2003), research has recently lent support to the view point that the experience of spirituality at work parades more fulfilling lives to individuals as well as positive organizational outcomes. (Farholm, 1997; Geon, 2003; Kinjerski, 2004; Kinyerski and Shrypriek, 2006; Milliman et al 2002; Mitroff and Denton, 1999; Mozley, 2000). Spirituality at work was reported to acts as an antidote to disengagement and disenchantment at work (kinjarki and Shrynek, 2006). Meghee and Grant (2008) have similarly advanced the notion that spiritual individuals are ethical in business, thereby resulting teamwork and fairness.
It is against this background that this payment is design to reviews extent literature to appraise spirit at work which is also known as Workplace spirituality. In accomplishing this, the text commences with an introduction, which is closely followed by an insight into the theoretical and conceptual framework underpinnings of spirituality. A distention between spirituality and religion in chapter two of this investigation.
1.2 Statement of Problems
Workplace spirituality as an emerging construct has been an important alloy of organizational culture. This is associated with some positive outcome. Some scholars have argued that workplace spirituality is positively related to organizational effectiveness. It then follows that the inability of management to explore the benefits of this emerging area of behavioural dimension, employee performance related behaviour may not go well with the smooth functioning and achievement of objectives.
One of the problems of this study is that, many oil exploratory firms lack workplace spirituality behaviour (love friendliness and sense of community) which hamper spirituality in workplace or spirit at work.
This implies that self connectedness is the issues in this study which stand as major problems in carrying out this investigation. This will be viewed in respect to problems associated to the problems of the study.
Therefore, this study is carried out to ascertain the relationship between workplace spirituality and organizational effectiveness of selected oil exploratory firms in Rivers State.
1.3 Purpose and Objectives of the Study
The main purpose of this investigation is to ascertain the relationship between workplace spirituality and organizational effectiveness of selected oil exploratory firms in Rivers State. The following objectives will be achieved accordingly:
i. To ascertain the relationship between search for meaning and organizational effectiveness.
ii. To examine the relationship between sense of communion and organizational effectiveness.
iii. To ascertain the relationship between search for value and organizational effectiveness.
1.4 Research Questions
In the course of this investigation, the following research questions are considered accordingly:
i. To what extent does search for meaning associate with organizational effectiveness?
ii. To what extent does sense of communion associate with organizational effectiveness?
iii. To what extent does search for value associate with organizational effectiveness?
1.5 Statement of Hypotheses
The following research hypotheses were postulated to guide the study;
HO1: There is no significant relationship between search for meaning and organizational effectiveness.
HO2: There is no significant relationship between sense of communion organizational effectiveness.
HO3: There is no significant relationship between search for value organizational effectiveness.
1.6 Significance of the Study
It is clear that a study of this nature is not earned out for the purpose of it, rather as a result of the associated benefits it has from union dimension firstly, the emerging construct of workplace spirituality and organizational effectiveness still appear strange to many exploratory firms in Rivers State or non fully untilled by many organizations. On this premise, the outcomes of this investigation will be very important and useful to the practicing managers of various organizations including firms to enable them tap from it an excellence habit and sense of community and solution practice for organizational effectiveness, those in the academic field, it will also be useful including students that would explore these phenomenal areas for future research. Those in the labour market will equally benefit from this study in achieving others into the system.
Most importantly, firms whose explore this phenomenal areas will enhances their performance in service delivery especially exploratory firms and both public and private sector.
Finally, this study will be useful for further research to educate and gives more insight for other dimension of investigation. Therefore, this study is carried out to ascertain the relationship between workplace spirituality and organizational effectiveness.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The scope of this study is delimited into three headings: content scope, geographical scope and unit of analysis.
Content scope: The content scope of this study involves on an investigation to ascertain the relationship between workplace spirituality and organizational effectiveness. The study involves two variables independent variables measured by it dimensions which are, search for meaning, sense of communion and search for value, and the dependent variable; organizational effectiveness measured by adaptability, competitiveness and innovativeness.
Geographical scope: This study is delimited in selected oil exploratory firms in Rivers State.
Unit of analysis: This unit of analysis involves employees and individuals of selected oil exploratory firms in Rivers State.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
In course of investigation of this nature, the research must be of necessity being faced with some limitation (constraint) as they cannot be avoided in conducting this research, the researcher face the following constraint. Firstly, the time frame provided for this study was short. Secondly, the uncompromising attitude of some correspondents in providing useful information was also a factor that limits this study. Usually, a study of this nature involved some level of expenditure therefore finance was also a limiting factor.
Finally, the encountered constraints of data collection and social problems were also a factor that limits this study. Therefore, this study is carried out to ascertain the relationship between workplace spirituality and organizational effectiveness in selected oil exploratory firms in Rivers State.
1.9 Definition of Terms
Efficiency: It means doing things right that is, ability to get things done correctly.
Effectiveness: It means the ability to change appropriate objective.
Performance: Is what as accomplishes.
Religion: Belief in and reverence for a supernatural power or powers regarded as creator and governor of the universe.
Spirituality: Experience, awareness, and application of a “Transcendent” to life beyond set.
Sense of community: Doing thing that other people will attention to it and be part of it coming together team work.
Workplace: Is defined as a group of people who perform a business together in order to achieve a particular aim.
Work attitude: A state of mind or a feeling disposition related to job or employment.
Workplace spirituality: A frame work of organizational values evidenced in the culture that promotes employee’s experience of transcendence through the work process, facilitating their sense of being connected to others in a way that provides feeling of completeness and joy.