The study examined the relationship between workplace ethics and employee performance, the objectives of the study is to determine the relationship between integrity and employee performance in some selected manufacturing firms in Rivers State, ascertain the relationship self-discipline and employee performance in some selected manufacturing firms in Rivers State and determine the relationship between work attitude and employee performance in some selected manufacturing firms in Rivers State. The survey approach was adopted for the study. The population was made up of 100 staff from selected manufacturing firms in Rivers State. A Self-designed questionnaire on workplace ethics and employee performance was used and administered for the collection of data from the respondents in new Revoc Nigeria Limited and Nigeria Bottling company plc Port Harcourt in Rivers State. The Taro Yemen’s formula was used to determine the sample size of 80. The simple percentage was used to analyze the research question. The Chi-Square statistical tool was used to test the hypothesis. Findings reveal that there is a significant relationship between workplace ethics and employee performance. Based on the findings of the study the following recommendations were made that It is a known fact that the surplus labour is extremely appropriated by the capitalists leaving labour with very little, even after having been made to work with their “blood”, administrators are managers in the organizations of higher education. Therefore, the decisions they make directly impact the perception of the existing ethical climate. Administrators should work to build an ethical climate of benevolence focusing on teamwork, social responsibility, and concern for the greater good and On the part of the Nigerian worker, for ethical conducts to have been properly observed, there is the need to align wage demands and increase in productivity and performance.
Table of Contents
Title Page i
List of Tables ix
List of Figures ix
CHAPTER 1 1
1.1 Background to the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 4
1.3 Objectives of the Study 5
1.4 Research Questions 5
1.5 Research Hypothesis 5
1.6 Significance of the Study 6
1.7 Scope and Limitations of the Study 6
1.8 Definition of Terms 7
CHAPTER 2 8
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 8
2.1 Conceptual Framework 8
2.1.1 CONCEPT OF WORKPLACE ETHICS 8
2.1.2 DIMENSIONS OF WORKPLACE ETHICS 10
2.1.3 Factors that Influence Contemporary Workplace Ethics 13
2.1.4 Concept of Employee performance 15
2.1.5 Measures of Employee Performance 18
2.2 Theoretical Framework 20
2.2.1 Expectancy Theory (Vroom 1964) 20
2.3 Emperical Framework 21
CHAPTER 3 25
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 25
3.0 Introduction 25
3.1 Research Design 25
3.2 Population of the Study 26
3.3 Questionnaire Design 26
3.4 Sources of Data Collection 26
3.5 Sample and Sampling Techniques 27
3.6 Data Analytical Techniques 29
3.7 Reliability and Validity 29
CHAPTER 4 31
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS 31
4.1 Data Collection and Presentation 31
4.2 DATA ANALYSIS 32
4.3 Testing of Hypothesis 37
CHAPTER 5 42
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 42
5.1 Summary 42
6.2 Conclusion 43
5.2 Recommendations 43
Appendix I 50
Appendix II 51
List of Tables
Table 4.1 Questionnaires Administration and Retrieval 31
Table 4.2: Show age bracket of respondents 32
Table 4.3: Show sex of respondents 33
Table 4.5: Marital status 34
Table 4.4: Academic qualification. 33
Table 4.6: Responses showing the extent does integrity influence employee in selected manufacturing firms in Rivers State. 35
Table 4.7: Response showing the extent does self-discipline influence employee in selected manufacturing firms in Rivers State. 36
Table 4.8: Response showing the extent does work attitude influence employee in selected manufacturing firms in Rivers State. 37
Table 4.12: Contingency Table 38
Table 4.13: Chi – Square Table 39
List of Figures
Fig. 2.1: A Conceptual Framework on Workplace Ethics and Employee Performance 8
1.1 Background to the Study
In the face of the emerging world economy, an organization that is involved in a proper framework for good governance must practice work ethics as part of its organizational standards. The organization must achieve higher performance and productivity.
Employee performance is derived from the word job performance that means real work produced by employee within a specific time period. Performance is a comparison between the works of the real compared to the standard set by the company. Performance is the quantity and quality of produced or services rendered by a person in doing the job. Performance is the work of behavior. Performance is the relationship between work and behavior. One of the ways an employee can perform is through organizational reward.
In the production of goods and services, both for domestic consumption and international trade or exchange, creation of national wealth, the attainment of political stability and the inclusive benefits of sustainable human developments. In other words, how well organizations adhere to ethical standards, obviously, determines the well-being of all the stakeholders, the organization’s productivity and the subsequent profitability, as well as the macroeconomic growth and development of the nation (Adeyeye, Aina, & Ige,2012).
The concept of efficiency as applicable to the context of employment relationship is a function of proper management of employees at work, including the adherence to workplace ethical standards. Admittedly, work dominates the lives of most men and women, and the management of employees, both individually and collectively, remains a central feature of organizational life (Adeyeye, Aina, & Ige, 2012). The totality of the essence of work in society is that it is the primary determinant around which human lives are ordered, organizations improve and nations are developed. Also the primacy of work in society and the critical role of the production function have naturally contributed to the growth, development and advancement of nations throughout human history.
In practical terms, nations are in existence to provide security, safety and most importantly developments to people who had surrendered their sovereignty in exchange for the aforementioned necessities of life, using organizations and all human resources available to them. Indeed, organizations advance the fortunes of nations through efficiency, productivity, output level and performance, as engendered by the institutional labour or a group of people known as workers. These workers are human beings with aspirations, hope and feelings. They render their human efforts (labour) in exchange for equitable wages and salaries, good physical working environment and longevity of employment relationship, anchored on ethical standards and human resource best practices,(Aniele,2004).
Ethics is the systematic study of the fundamental principle of the moral law; or as normative science of human conduct (Aniele, 2004). This implies that ethics is basically a normative science, as distinct from the descriptive or empirical sciences. Moral principles that form the subject matter of ethics are about the way people ought to behave in terms of the commitment to their work and their team, integrity and being self-disciplined. It follows that ethics, primarily is the critical investigation of the norms of conduct to which human actions ought to conform. According to Noe, Hollenbeck, Gerhart, & Wright, (2004), the term ethics refers to the fundamental principles of right and wrong; it is the behaviour that is consistent with those principles. Conceptually, discipline and indiscipline are dimensions of human behaviour. Disciplined behaviour is the sine qua non for individuals, organizations and national survival and development. Discipline and indiscipline, just and unjust, right and wrong, can be directly associated with ethics.
Productivity involves goal attainment. It is the successful transfer of input to output at the lowest possible cost. Productivity implies both efficiency and effectiveness.
Mah’s (2008) defined productivity as the measure of how well resources are brought together in organization and utilized for accomplishing a set of goals. It involves reaching the highest level of performance with the least expenditure of resources.
The above definition is two-tie. The first involves a set of result or performance. Performing or accomplishing a set of result refers to the effectiveness in reaching a mission, a planned achievement or a needed value without serious regard for the cost incurred in the process. Certainly, accomplishing a set of result is by far the most important focus of the productive concept because without it there is no productivity. The second part involves consuming resources without which achievements are not likely to happen and productivity cannot exist. It specifies the number type and level of resources needed, e.g. plant capacity, cost, raw materials, personnel, facilities, capital, technology. How well these resources are brought together refers to the efficiency of achieving results with minimum exposure of the resources. High productivity suggests minimum use of resources.
Any behaviour contrary to the expectations of these actors would rather hinder the progress of production processes and the development of the organizations. Since national development is dependent on what the labour can generate by way of Gross Domestic Products (GDP), a substantial attention must be paid to the agreement legally, socially and economically entered into by all the stakeholders for the parties to enjoy the expected efficiency, equity and development, which are the main objectives of employee engagement and the overall impact on the organizational productivity.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The desperation of the productive enterprises to achieve corporate goals and workers’ desire for equity have naturally affected employee commitment, integrity, self discipline and by extension the level of productivity of the organization(Adeyeye, Aina, & Ige,2012).
Previously, Nigerian workers were ranked among the best in world, given a conductive work situation. Today, the rating has developed far below average as Nigerian workers only care about what they can benefit from the organization. Ultimately, this study is to examine standards and favourable situations in the work system acting as a catalyst to increase the productivity of employees, in terms of efficiency, effectiveness and real output.
However, this study seeks to examine the relationship between workplace ethics and employee performance in some selected manufacturing firms in Rivers State.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The main objective of the study is to examine the relationship between workplace ethics and organizational productivity. The specific objectives are as follows:
ii. Determine the relationship between integrity and employee performance in some selected manufacturing firms in Rivers State.
iii. Ascertain the relationship self-discipline and employee performance in some selected manufacturing firms in Rivers State.
iv. Determine the relationship between work attitude and employee performance in some selected manufacturing firms in Rivers State.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions are proposed as follows;
i. To what extent does integrity and influence employee performance in some selected manufacturing firms in Rivers State?
ii. To what extent does self-discipline influence employee performance in some selected manufacturing firms in Rivers State?
iii. To what extent does work attitude influence employee performance in some selected manufacturing firms in Rivers State?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
HO1: There is no significant relationship between integrity and employee performance in some selected manufacturing firms in Rivers State.
HO2: There is no significant relationship between integrity and employee performance in some selected manufacturing firms in Rivers State.
HO3: There is no significant relationship between self discipline and employee performance in some selected manufacturing firms in Rivers State.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The outcome of this study will be of immense benefit to a wide range of people. First, to the government and public policy makers, this study will help them appreciate the strategic importance of making and implementing a policy of inclusiveness that can fast-track environmental stability for business to serve, hence, promote friendly investment climate which is an impetus for increased foreign direct investment. The study will reveal to stakeholders and manager to promote workplace ethics in the organization in order for the organization to be effective and face their competitors. The study will add to the knowledge in industrial relations in specificity and management sciences.
Employees also would be better enlightened on the issues of reward in oil industry so that they are properly guided on what they should expect from their employers to reduce tendency for conflict between them and their employers. High productivity and output demand that work environment be harmonious.
The students and researcher will also benefit from the study because it will serve as a base data for those who might want to carry out further studies in the area.
1.7 Scope and Limitations of the Study
This study examines the strategic contributions of workplace ethics on organizational productivity of some selected manufacturing firms in Port Harcourt. The specific areas of productivity the study investigated include; profitability, market share and innovativeness.
In carrying out an investigation of this nature the researcher must of necessity be faced the following constraint.
Firstly, the time constraint’s the time frame provision for this study was short.
Secondly, financial constraints usually, a study of this nature involved some level of expenditure therefore, finance was also a limiting factor.
Thirdly, poor response from the respondent and inability to access the entire population of the study. In the next segment significance of the study will be discussed. Lastly, poor measurement instrument.
1.8 Definition of Terms
Workplace Ethics: It is a set of principles relating to morals, especially as they apply to human conduct.
Self-Discipline: Self-discipline at the workplace is an optimistic determination and efforts which assists in developing certain traditions for guiding individual’s feelings, conducts, behaviours, thoughts, activities and habits.
Work Attitude: It is the attitude is assessed by the involvement of employees in performing the assigned responsibilities.
Productivity: Productivity involves goal attainment. It is the successful transfer of input to output at the lowest possible cost. Productivity implies both efficiency and effectiveness.