The aim of this study is to find out how work environment and employee attitude influence the job performance of a business organization using Union Bank Plc as a case. From the researchers statistics, there are a total of 120 employees in Union Bank Plc, Bori representing the entire population of Commercial banks in Bori. In arriving at the sample size of the study, the Taro Yemen formular at 5% degree of freedom was utilized making the sample size of 92. While the data were analyzed using the simple percentage. Based on the findings of this study, it could however was concluded that work environment affects job performance and achievement of organizational goals. On the above findings it was therefore recommended that: That employer should take initiatives to motivate employees by improving work environments, that management should improve the system of communication with their employees and create a motivating climate to increase productivity and clear reward system to all members of the organization, and that emphasis should be on how to improve the work environment, making it more conducive to employees in providing loans and other scheme that uphold and sustain employees’ commitment and dedication to their jobs and finally, that management should clearly set structures and work system as to achieve goals and objectives.
Table of Contents
Cover Page i
Table of Contents vi
CHAPTER 1 1
1.1 Background of the Study: 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 3
1.3 Objective of the Study 4
1.4 Significance of the Study: 4
1.5 Research Questions 5
1.6 Scope and Delimitation of the Study: 5
1.7 Definition of Terms: 6
CHAPTER 2 7
LITERATURE REVIEW 7
2.1 Conceptual Framework: 7
2.1.1 Concept of Work Environment: 7
2.1.2 Dimensions of Work Environment: 10
Communication practices 10
Physical working conditions 10
2.1.3 Employee’s Attitude: 11
2.1.4 Dimensions of Employee Attitude: 12
Job Involvement 12
Job Satisfaction 13
2.1.5 Job Performance 15
2.1.6 Measures of Job Performance 16
2.1.7 Work Environment and Job Performance 17
2.1.8 Employee’s Attitude and Job Performance 18
2.2 Theoretical Framework: 19
2.2.1 Victor H. Vroom’s Expectancy Theory (1964): 19
2.3 Empirical Framework 20
CHAPTER 3 23
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 23
3.1 Research Design 23
3.2 Population of the Study 23
3.3 Sample and Sampling techniques: 24
3.4 Instrument for Data Collection 24
3.5 Validity of Instrument: 25
3.6 Reliability of Instrument: 25
3.7 Method of Data Analysis 26
CHAPTER 4 26
PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF DATA 27
4.1 Presentation of Data 27
4.2 Data Analysis 28
4.3 Discussion of the Findings: 33
CHAPTER FIVE 36
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 36
5.1 Summary 36
5.2 Conclusion 36
5.3 Recommendations 37
1.1 Background of the Study:
Human effort in organization is indispensable. It constitutes a complex phenomenon to managers of such organization to comprehend. Accordingly, it is believed that every behaviour is a goal directed. Thus, for an organization or individual to engage in any productive venture, it must have underlying fundamental factors including the individual in that direction. Hence the effect of work environment in achieving set target for the organization must be in adequate condition. Therefore, the nature of office concerned with these things that influence job performance, which constitute the “why” of people behaviours? Why do people do things? Why is Ifeoma’s moral higher than Ngozi’s?, what are these increases in job performance? These questions can be answered with the understanding of the nature of work environment and how these affect performance. However, the organizational target can only be achieved if the environment is conducive.
Work environment consists of the office buildings, its furniture and layout as well as the physical conditions under which workers operate. it is also concerned with the external factors to the business which the office serves, the industry or other activities within which the business lies, the custom and laws of the community within which they operates. These environment factors are always changing and the office must react to the changes, but how does the customs and laws reduce workers morale? This question can be answered after investigation. Office and work environment are dynamic, but the most dynamic factors in the office is human factor. Workers today are more educated than before. They are more likely to raise questions about their environment of work since management itself dynamic pro. It has adhered and addresses itself to the provision of good environment of work for workers productivity. But what are those increases that enhance productivity? Therefore, answer will be made after investigations. However, poor work environment and bad conditions have posed a great danger to workers health and therefore make them to work with less joy and enthusiasms and work progress is hampered and disrupted. An understanding of the effect of work environment on the productivity of employees cannot be over-emphasized or seen as overstatement in every organization. Experience has shown that workers are directly influenced by the environment they find themselves or were their competence will achieve nothing in terms of productivity if the environment is not conducive. This is in line saying in respect of workers in public enterprises today specially those in Delta Line and his issue of unproductive nature of workers is compounded with the poor nature of the environment. Therefore, because of the adverse effect of work environment on morale of employees, the need for provision of good physical work environment for workers was stated by Millin 1930 after the first world war. During this period, various management were concerned with the importance of maintaining loyalty and morale through the elimination of irritants such as temperatures, noise and pollution from their environment. This was later spread out to include a wider area of disturbing influences like feeling of insecurity in relation to employment, unfairness on the part of supervision and not being accepted by one’s fellow employees. According to Mills (1983), the need for standard of working condition received legal backing by 1963 law and act of parliament which made it mandatory for all business organization to provide the minimum standard of interest that will enhance the performance of employees as an objective.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Every organization is set up for a purpose and such purpose which is generally referred to as the objective. This cannot be achieved if the environment looks unhealthy. The absence of important work material as a result of non availability of some necessary office facilities like air condition, rug, good ventilation in some of the department in the company is a common feature. Some office or department looks depressing and un-stimulating. Some of them have no louvers, light and some with uncompleted roofs. The state of affairs do not compete favorable with other office outside, some office with dirty and scattered environment, most of the departments has small floor space with materials tables, chairs, papers, files and other things scattered here and there. Some office were furnished without due regard to the relationship between colour selection and workers morale. Some of these facilities has colour which makes the office to be dark; in some of the department’s work service are wrongly arranged. It is known from workers view point that the work of accounting typing etc needs good quality of light because of visual discrimination involved. As a result of non availability of good work environment, the performance of employees is in a declining state. Most departmental manager in the company pay no attention in accomplishing the departmental set objectives, as to be recognized and promoted at the expense of workers or employees welfare. These acts of negligence by the mangers have gone a long way to reduce workers performance or morale. The state of affairs in the company has resulted to negative attitude by the employees which is inimical to the progress and accomplishment of the company’s set objective. With an attempt to answer the questions in the research work.
1.3 Objective of the Study
The aim of this study is to find out how work environment and employee attitude influence the job performance of a business organization using Union Bank Plc as a case. In specific term, the study is aimed at;
1. To investigate how work environment influence job performance in Union Bank Plc, Bori.
2. To ascertain the relationship between workers attitude and job performance in Union Bank Plc, Bori.
3. To understand how environmental factor impede job performance in Union Bank Plc, Bori.
4. To examine the relationship among workers environment, workers attitude and job performance in Union Bank Plc, Bori.
1.4 Significance of the Study:
The study will serve as guide to the management of Union Bank in particular and the Nigerian managers as a whole in determining the best way of getting the best output from their employees who are presently demoralized in the face of the prevailing socio-economic hardship.
The study is also aimed at contributing to the literature in Work Environment and Employee Attitude particularly with reference to Employee Performance. Also, this work on completion will broaden the essence for application of modern office equipment and layout for both public and private sectors respectively.
1.5 Research Questions
The following questions will help to reconcile issues in this study
1. Does work environment influence job performance in Union Bank Plc, Bori?
2. Does workers attitude influence job performance in Union Bank Plc, Bori?
3. Could environmental factor impede employee job performance in Union Bank Plc, Bori?
4. Are there any relationship among workers environment, workers attitude and job performance in Union Bank Plc, Bori?
1.6 Scope and Delimitation of the Study:
The study is delimited under the following heading: content scope, geographical scope and unit of analysis.
Content Scope: The content scope of this study involves on investigation to ascertain the relationship between work environment and job performance on one hand and employee attitude and job performance on the other hand. The study consist of two independent variables: work environment and employee attitude. Work environment is measured by mental environment, social environment and physical environment. While the dependent variable is job performance measure by market share, productivity and effectiveness.
Geographical Scope: This study is delimited in Bori with special reference to Union Bank Plc, Bori, Rivers State.
Unit of Analysis: The unit of analysis in this research involves the individuals at the time of carrying out the study.
In carrying out an investigation of this native the researcher must of necessity be faced the following constraint.
Firstly, the time constraint’s the time frame provision for this study was short.
Secondly, Financial Constraints. Usually, a study of this nature involved some level of expenditure therefore; finance was also a limiting factor.
Thirdly, Inability to access the entire population of the study. Lastly, poor measurement instrument.
1.7 Definition of Terms:
Attitude: An attitude is a relatively enduring organization of beliefs, feelings, and behavioral tendencies towards socially significant objects, groups, events or symbols.
Employee: a person employed for wages or salary, especially at non-executive level.
Job Performance: The process whereby employee function is carry it function to achieve the goal of the organization.
Work Environment: this involves the physical geographical location as well as the immediate surroundings of the workplace, such as a construction site or office building.