The study examined the relationship between stress management and employee performance of telecommunication firms in Rivers State. The survey research method was employed. The population of the study is 216. The Taro yemens formula was used to determine the sample size of 140. Data collection was done using a structured questionnaire. A self-design questionnaire on management development and organizational performance was used specifically for data collection. The method used to analyze the data was simple descriptive method stated in tables and expressed in percentage. The hypothesis testing was done with the SPSS version 22. Based on the findings of the study, job redesign leads to employee performance of telecommunication firms in Rivers State and reward system leads to employee performance of telecommunication firms in Rivers State. We recommended for employee performance to yield the desired outcomes, adequate attention should be paid to the avoidance of appraisal politics and the pursuance of fairness and transparency in the organization and employee performance appraisal exercise should not be seen as ingestion but rather as a means of developing the employee in his job with the intention of strengthening the strong points of the employee while enabling him to improve his weak point.
Table of Contents
Title Page i
Cover Page ii
List of Tables x
List of Figures xi
CHAPTER 1 1
1.1 Background of the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 3
1.3 Objectives of the Study 4
1.4 Research Questions 5
1.5 Research Hypothesis 5
1.6 Significance of the Study 5
1.7 Scope and Limitations of the Study 6
1.8 Definition of Terms 7
CHAPTER 2 9
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 9
2.1 Conceptual Framework 9
2.1.1 Concept of Stress Management 9
2.1.2 Dimension of Stress Management 15
2.1.3 Concept of Employee performance 19
2.1.5 Measures of Employee Performance 22
2.2 Theoretical Framework 24
2.2.1 Transactional Model of Stress 24
2.2.2 Systemic Stress: Selye’s Theory 26
CHAPTER 3 28
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 28
3.1 Research Design 28
3.2 Population of the Study 28
3.3 Sample and Sampling Techniques 29
3.4 Methods of Data Collection 30
3.5 Method of Data Analysis 31
3.6 Questionnaire Design 31
3.7 Data Analytical Techniques 31
3.8 Reliability and Validity 32
CHAPTER 4 33
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS 33
4.1 Data Collection and Presentation 33
4.4 Discussion of Findings 42
CHAPTER 5 44
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 44
5.1 Summary 44
5.2 Conclusion 44
5.3 Recommendations 45
Appendix I 58
List of Tables
Table 4.1: Questionnaire Administration and Retrieval 33
Table 4.2: Sex of Respondents 34
Table 4.3: Age of Respondents 34
Table 4.4: Academic Qualification 35
Table 4.5: Employee Designation 35
Table 4.6: Frequencies 36
Table 4.7:Test Statistics 38
List of Figures
Fig. 2.1: A Conceptual Framework on Stress Management and Employee Performance 9
1.1 Background of the Study
Employee performance appraisal is a key in human resource management function which is viewed as a subset of performance management. Rao (2005) argues that employee performance appraisal is a method of evaluating the behavior of employees in the workplace, this normally include both the quantitative and qualitative aspects of job performance. It helps to identify and overcome the problems faced by the employees in their workplace (Mackey & Johnson, 2000). Although it has many benefits for the organizations, states that employee performance appraisal has the equal probability of having a bad influence on the organization as well as on employee performance (Nurse, (2005).
According to Kuvaas, (2006); employee performance appraisal or employee appraisal is a method by which the job performance of an employee is evaluated generally in terms of quality, quantity, cost and time typically by the immediate line manager or supervisor. An employee performance appraisal is a part of the process of guiding and managing career development in both private and public sectors. It involves the task of obtaining, analyzing and recording information about the relative worth of an employee to the organization (Maud, 2001).
Accurate appraisals are crucial for the evaluation of recruitment, selection, and training procedures that can lead to improved performance. Appraisals can determine training needs and occasionally, counseling needs. They can also increase employee motivation through the feedback process and may provide an evaluation of working conditions, thus, improving employee productivity, by encouraging the strong areas and modifying the weak ones (Rao, 2004).
Excessive stress is considered to be one of the main factors affecting employees‟ performance and commitment (Paul, Elam & Verhaut, 2007). Work-related stress is considered to be the product of an imbalance between environmental demands and individual capabilities (Rees & Redfern, 2003). Rees (2001) indicates that occupational stress is the inability to cope with the pressures in a job because of a poor fit between someone’s abilities and ones work requirements and conditions. According to Schermerhorn, Hunt and Osborn (2008), stress is a state of tension experienced by individuals facing extraordinary demands, constraints, or opportunities. It is a mental and physical condition which affects an individual’s productivity, effectiveness, personal health and quality of work (Holmlund Rytkönen & Strandvik, 2005). Stress may results in high portion of absence from work and loss of employment (Meneze, 2005). Stress can be defined as a physical, mental, or emotional response to events that causes bodily or mental tension. Stress in general can be defined as the reaction of individuals to demands (stressors) imposed upon them. It refers to situations where the well-being of individual is detrimentally affected by their failure to cope with the demands of their environment (Erkutlu & Chafra, 2006).
Managing stress emanating from the facets of the work environment of employees and their personal lives has become a centre of attraction to many scholars in organizational studies. This is so because, of the array of benefits derivable from such strategies According to Champoux (2008), the essence of stress management is to keep dysfunctional stressors at an optimal level, to avoid the occurrences of psychological, physiological, and organizational consequences associated with such stressor. The author went further to assert that, stressors cannot be completed eliminate, but could be maintained at a realistic level of both the individual and the organization: According to Joshi (2008). Not all the forms of stress are bad or should be reduced. This is hinged on the fact that certain stressors are said to be functional or good to be experienced by the employees. Hence, emphasis is on the management of the form of stress that is dysfunctional that can impair individual and organizational wellbeing.
From the foregoing therefore, this study seeks to examine the relationship between stress management and employee performance of telecommunication firms in Rivers State.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Managing stress in the workplace has fundamentally become inescapable as a result of the behavioural and dysfunctional consequences associated with it, as stress takes its toll in both the individual and the organization. Employees experience stressful situation at work from the effects of stressors that emanate from the work environment and other personal related factors. Some of the stressors in this regard are said to be functional, while others are dysfunctional, and can impede employees from having a good fit with the work environment for them to perform in achieving their personal goals and that of the organization. A volume of scholars suggest that, managing employee stress in the workplace involve individual and organizational level strategies that can minimize the manifestations and menace of dysfunctional stressors (Miller, 2008; Foshi, 2008). This means that, stressors are integral to the work environment, and those that are dysfunctional in nature can be maintained an optimal level through effective stress management.
On the, other hand, opinion converge that extreme cases of stress caused by dysfunctional stressors, cause employee job burnout. Burnout is an extreme condition of emotionally depression, further characterized by exhaustion, loss of personality, and eroded personal achievements. Burnout syndrome has been found to be associated with certain individual and organizational level consequences such as impaired wellbeing, poor work life balance and performance (Ndawula, 2013). Other forms of pitfalls are dysfunctional turnover (Leiter & lvlaslach, 2009), employee job dissatisfaction (Aiken et al, 2002), and poor emotional stability and problem solving (Tnaet al., 2009).
On this premise of reasoning, most employees of telecommunication firms are identified to be emotionally exhausted, depressed in the discharge of their official responsibilities, and found lacking in their personal accomplishments, thus typifying extreme cases of dysfunctional stressors on employee on job burnout. Consequently, the said employees in this communication industry experience impaired wellbeing, poor work life balance, job dissatisfaction and eroded emotional stability. Given their scenario, it has become necessary to correlate stress management and employee performance in telecommunication firms, with a view to ameliorating the situation. This is why a study of this nature has become pertinent.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The main objective of the study is to examine the relationship between workplace ethics and organizational productivity. The specific objectives are as follows:
1. To determine the relationship between job redesign and employee performance of selected telecommunication firms in Rivers State.
2. To ascertain the relationship job rotation and employee performance of selected telecommunication firms in Rivers State.
3. To determine the relationship between reward system and employee performance of selected telecommunication firms in Rivers State.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions are proposed as follows;
1. To what extent does job redesign influence employee performance of selected telecommunication firms in Rivers State?
2. To what extent does job rotation influence employee performance of selected telecommunication firms in Rivers State?
3. To what extent does reward system influence employee performance of selected telecommunication firms in Rivers State?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
HO1: There is no significant relationship between job redesign and employee performances of selected telecommunication firms in Rivers State.
HO2: There is no significant relationship between job rotation and employee performance of selected telecommunication firms in Rivers State.
HO3: There is no significant relationship between reward system and employee performance of selected telecommunication firms in Rivers State.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The outcome of this study will be of immense benefit to a wide range of people. First, to the government and public policy makers, this study will help them appreciate the strategic importance of making and implementing a policy of inclusiveness that can fast-track environmental stability for business to serve, hence, promote friendly investment climate which is an impetus for increased foreign direct investment. The study will reveal to stakeholders and manager to promote workplace ethics in the organization in order for the organization to be effective and face their competitors. The study will add to the knowledge in industrial relations in specificity and management sciences.
Employees also would be better enlightened on the issues of reward in oil industry so that they are properly guided on what they should expect from their employers to reduce tendency for conflict between them and their employers.
High productivity and output demand that work environment be harmonious.
The students and researcher will also benefit from the study because it will serve as a base data for those who might want to carry out further studies in the area.
1.7 Scope and Limitations of the Study
This study examines the strategic contributions of stress management and employee performance of telecommunication firms in Rivers State. The specific areas of productivity the study investigated include; effectiveness, efficiency and productivity.
In carrying out an investigation of this nature the researcher must of necessity be faced the following constraint.
Firstly, the time constraint’s the time frame provision for this study was short.
Secondly, financial constraints usually, a study of this nature involved some level of expenditure therefore, finance was also a limiting factor.
Thirdly, poor response from the respondents and inability to access the entire population freely.
1.8 Definition of Terms
At the successful introduction of a better thing or method. It is the embodiment, combination, or synthesis of knowledge in original, relevant, valued new products, processes, or services.
An organizational mechanism utilized to reduce job overload experienced by employees with the aim of eliminating the stressors.
This is an organizational technique utilized to move employees from one job to another with the aim of enabling such employees experience new skills and knowledge in task accomplishment.
Productivity involves goal attainment. It is the successful transfer of input to output at the lowest possible cost. Productivity implies both efficiency and effectiveness.
Reward system is defined as a structured method of evaluation and compensation employees based on their performance.
This involves the entire techniques or methods that will be useful in the management of employee stress at work.
A condition or feeling experienced when a person perceives that demands exceed the personal and social resources the individual is able to mobilize (Robbins, 2005).