The study is determined to examine the relationship between stress management and employee job burnout in selected deposit money banks in Port Harcourt. The study adopt the cross-sectional survey design in finding the relationship between stress management and employee job burnout. The population of the study is 130. The Taro Yemen’s formula is used to determine the sample size of 104. The structures questionnaire was used for data collection. Findings reveal that there is a significant relationship between job redesign and employee job burnout, there is a significant relationship between job rotation and employee job burnout and there is a significant relationship between social support and employee job burnout. Based on the findings of the study we recommended that there is need to consider an appropriate weight for job design in other to enhance employee productivity, managers need to provide opportunities for increasing job satisfaction and motivation; decreasing job stress in the organization, remedial measures need to be taken by management to minimize the effects of job stress on permanent basis. For this purpose, management must conduct the research programs to build the managerial and technical skills of employees and the managers and supervisors should give proper attention to the employees and create an amiable environment that may urge them to be responsible and productive.
Table of Contents
Title Page i
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Table of Contents viii
List of Table x
List of Figure xi
CHAPTER 1 1
1.1 Background of the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 3
1.3 Objectives of the Study 5
1.5 Significance of the Study 5
1.5 Research Questions 6
1.6 Research Hypotheses 6
1.7 Scope/Delimitation 6
1.8 Definition of Terms 7
CHAPTER TWO 9
LITERATURE REVIEW 9
2.1 Conceptual Framework 9
Source: Researchers Desk 2018 9
2.1.1 Stress Management 9
2.3 Dimension of Stress Management 15
2.1.3 Employee Job Burnout 18
2.1.4 Measures of Employee Job Burnout 19
2.1.5 Organizational Culture 19
2.4.3 Stress Management and Employee Job Burnout 22
2.2 Theoretical Framework 23
2.3 Empirical Review 24
CHAPTER 3 27
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 27
3.1 Research Design 27
3.2 Population of the Study 28
3.3 Sample and Sampling Technique 29
3.4 Data Collection Methods 31
3.5 Measurement of Variables 31
3.6 Validity and Reliability 32
3.7 Data Analysis Technique 33
CHAPTER 4 35
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS 35
4.1 Data Collection and Presentation 35
4.2 Data Analysis 36
4.3 Testing of Hypothesis 39
4.4 Discussion of Findings 42
CHAPTER 5 44
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 44
5.1 Summary 44
5.2 Conclusion 44
5.3 Recommendations 44
Appendix I 52
Appendix II 53
List of Table
Table 4.1: Questionnaires Administration and Retrieval 35
Table 4.2: show age bracket of respondents 36
Table 4.3: show sex of respondents 36
Table 4.4: Academic qualification 36
Table 4.5: Marital status 37
Table 4.6: If there is any relationship between job redesign and employee job burnout. 37
Table 4.7: Response showing if there is any relationship between job rotation and employee job burnout. 38
Table 4.8: Response showing if there is relationship between social support and employee job burnout. 38
Table 4.9: Response showing if organizational culture associate with the relationship between stress management and employee job burnout. 39
Table 4.10: Contingency Table 40
Table 4.11: Chi-Square Table 41
List of Figure
Figure 2.1: A conceptual framework showing the relationship between Stress Management and Employee job rotation 9
1.1 Background of the Study
For some decades, the imperativeness of employee wellbeing has considerably become a topical arena of attraction to a number of scholars (Mxenge et al., 2014; 1-lalewi, 20014; Champoux, 2008). Organizations, are increasingly realizing that employees remain their most priceless asset for a lasting competitive advantage in a business era that is dynamic and intensely competitive. On the score providing an employment brand that encourages the retention of talented and committed workforce becomes inevitable. Shermerhorn & Wright (2008) note that the vulnerability of employees to stress arising from their daily jobs is mainly due to the dynamic nature of the business environment, Miller (2008) notes that stress is an emotional process in which stressors from the work environment cause strain in individuals, referred to as burnout, that results into psychological, physiological, and organizational consequences. This implies that, burnout is a state of depression that can distort employee and organizational wellbeing, as well as performance.
Cordes & Dougherry (1993) suggest that people who perform jobs that are highly international or those who engage in the services of assisting others are susceptible to experiencing work—related burnout. Employees who suffer burnout are identified to be emotionally immersed in their work, with eroded levels of things that are not work: related (Champoux, 2008; Miller; 2008). This connotes that employees whoexperience burnout are emotionally impoverished, depersonalized and associated with low personal accomplishments (Maslach et al., 2001; Makashara et al., 2015).
Although opinions exist that burnout has a strong affinity with depression, when experienced by victims (Ndawula, 2013). However, burnout stands characterized by three key features mainly: exhaustion, accompanied with hypertension, and eroded emotional resources; loss of personality in which case, a victim of burnout experiences social isolation from the work and colleagues; -are depletion of personal achievements, while celebrating feelings of incompetence and failure at Work. In essence, this implies that, burnout and depression have antecedences linkages with stressors arising from the work environment.
Generally, burnout has been found to be associated with some individual and organizational level consequences. Maslache et al., (2001) perceive burnout as emotionally depressed conditions, characterized by exhaustion. depersonalization, and inefficacy. According to. Ndawula (2013), when one or more of these factors are experienced by employees, their productivity level will he adversely affected, thus,. impaired wellbeing, quality of work life, and actual service delivery. Another consequence associated with job burnout is dysfunctional turnover. Leiter & Muslach (2009), in a story of Canadian nurses, found positive relationship between burnout and dysfunctional turnover that terminally affected service delivery. Burnout was further found to be associated with job dissatisfaction. in a study of American nurses that resulted high mortality rate (Aiken et al,, 2002). Also Tong, et al. (2009) found that poor emotional stability arising from burnout can lead to poor problem solving, and poor management of distressful conditions. What is made apparent is that; when employees experience unrelenting job stressors at work, they will experience burnout that will affect their wellbeing, work life balance, and job performance.
A great body of literature suggest that employee burnout originated from destructive stressors in the work environment and from Personal lives (Miller, 2008; Josh, 2008; Mschane & Von Glivnow, 2008), that can impair the wellbeing of employees and the organization. 1-lowever, there is a convergence of opinions that stress management is the medium through which destructives stressors (burnout) could be minimized (Miller, 2008; Robbins, 2005). Stress management is usually explored to prevent destructive stressor not to attain undesirable levels when identified (Shermerhorn & Wright, 2008; Joshi, 2008). It is further indicated that areas that are stressors laden include role ambiguities, conflicts, and overload. including factors that are personal-related. This implies that if the sources through which stressors originated are identified and managed, it is unlikely that employees will experience burnout often.
Champbux (2008) note that, the primary motive of stress management, is to maintain an optimal level of stressors for both the employee and the organization, appreciating that some stressors are unavoidable and functional (Mishere & Von Gliow, 2008; Ndawula, 2013), The author further advanced that, stress management encompasses twolevels, of implementation, namely: the individual level and organizational level. While ‘the individual level involves stress reduction, stress resilience, and stress recuperation strategies, similar strategies could also be replicated at the organizational level, ‘According to Mschene & Von Gliow (2008), the essence of stress management is to remove the stressors that may inhibit wellbeing and performance of the employee from the stressful environment.
Observably, most of the earlier studies may have associated stress management strategies (Champoux, 200$; Miller, 2008), while studies correlating stress management and job burnout are scanty. Consequently, this study addresses this gap, by examining the relationship between stress management and employee job burnout in the south-south region of the Nigeria banking industry.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Managing stress in the workplace has fundamentally become inescapable as a result of the behavioural and dysfunctional consequences associated with it, as stress takes its toll in both the individual and the organization. Employees experience stressful situation at work from the effects of stressors that emanate from the work environment and other personal—related factors. Some of the stressors in this regard are said to be functional, while others are dysfunctional, and can impede employees from having a good fit with the work environment for them to perform in achieving their personal goals and that of the organization. A volume of scholars suggest that, managing employee stress in the workplace involve individual and organizational level strategies that can minimize the manifestations and menace of dysfunctional stressors (Miller, 2008; Foshi, 2008). This means that, stressors are integral to the work environment, and those that are dysfunctional in nature can be maintained an optimal level through effective stress management.
On the, other hand, opinion converge that extreme cases of stress caused by dysfunctional stressors, cause employee job burnout. Burnout is an extreme condition of emotionally depression, further characterized by exhaustion, loss of personality, and eroded personal achievements. Burnout syndrome has been found to be associated with certain individual and organizational level consequences such as impaired wellbeing, poor work life balance and performance (Ndawula, 2013). Other forms of pitfalls are dysfunctional turnover (Leiter & lvlaslach, 2009), employee job dissatisfaction (Aiken et al, 2002), and poor emotional stability and problem solving (Tnaet al., 2009).
On this premise of reasoning, most employees of the banking industry in the south— south region of Nigeria, are identified to be emotionally exhausted, depressed in the :discharge of their official responsibilities, and found lacking in their personal accomplishments, thus typifying extreme cases of dysfunctional stressors on employee on job burnout. Consequently, the said employees in this service industry experience impaired wellbeing, poor work life balance, job dissatisfaction and eroded emotional stability. Given their scenario, it has become necessary to correlate stress management and employee job burnout in the Nigerian banking industry, with a view to ameliorating the situation. This is why a stud’ of this nature has become pertinent.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The mainobjectives of this study is to examine the relationship between stress management and employee job burnout in Port Harcourt.
The Specific objectives are as follows:
1. To examine the relationship between job redesign and employee job burnout,
2. To examine the relationship between job rotation and employee job burnout.
3. To examine the relationship between social support and employee job burnout.
1.5 Significance of the Study
The relevance of this study is justified by the following:
This study addresses the relationship between stress management and employee job burnout in the banking industry of south-south region of Nigeria. Hence, the location and population for the study, provide the basis for the applicability of its findings to context involved. The outcomes of this study will in no small measure contribute to the management of human resource in various organizations, regarding the relationship between the management of stress and employee job burnout.
The findings of this study, will equally serve as a reference material for subsequent studies ‘that will be related to the variables investigated; moreso regarding the techniques and methods utilized. Furthermore, the findings of this study will provide evidence for validity the outcomes of previous studies. In sum, both practicing managers, academics, students and organizational will immensely benefit from the outcomes of this investigation; even those outside the academic field inclusive.
The following research questions are posed to guide this study as follows:
1. Is there any relationship between job redesign and employee job burnout?
2. Is there any relationship between job rotation and employee job burnout?
3. Is there any relationship between social support and employee job burnout?
1.6 Research Hypotheses
The following hypotheses were formulated to guide the study:
Ho1: There is no significant relationship between job redesign and employee job burnout.
Ho2: There is no significant relationship between job rotation and employee job burnout.
Ho3: There is no significant relationship between social support and employee job burnout.
The scope of this study is delimited under the following mainly: content scope, geographical scope, and unit of analysis:
Content Scope: This study investigates the relationship between stress management and employee job burnout stress management as the predictor variable have (a) Job redesign, (b) Job rotation, and (c) Social support , as dimensions. On the other hand, the criterion variables which are employee job burnout have (a) Emotional exhaustion, (b) Depersonalization, and (c) Inefficiency, as measures. The relationship between the predictor variable and the criterion variables is moderated by organizational culture.
Geographical Scope: The geographical scope of this study delimited to some selected deposit money banks that are operational in the south south region of Nigeria, with regional offices/headquarters situated in Port Harcourt.
Unit of Analysis: This is a macro-level, investigation, as it investigates employee job burnout, and how this can be addressed using stress managementstrategies.
In carrying out the conduct of a study of this nature, it is natural that the researcher will constrained by certain limiting factors, but will not adulterate the required fact, desired of the study. First such constraining factors will encompass financial constraints. A study of this nature, will obviously involve a huge financial outlay that will also expose the researcher to a level of financial expenditure. Second, another factor that will constrain the researcher is time-frame allowable for the study. Third, the uncompromising behaviour of some respondents in the data collection process, will also be limiting. Finally, another limiting factor encouraged in the circumstance is the difficulties involved in accessing materials for the study.
1.8 Definition of Terms
The following terms associated with this study are operationally defined below:
EMPLOYEE JOB BURNOUT: This is an extreme case of emotional exhaustion arising from the results of dysfunctional stressors.
EMPLOYEE EXHAUSTION: This involves a depressed or emotionally eroded state employees experience from their job; involving fatigue, frustration and estrangement from the job.
DEPERSONALIZATION: This refers to the extent to which an employee gets distracted from him or herself arising from job burnout.
INEFFICACY: This implies to lack of power or capacity to produce the desired effect.
JOB REDESIGN: An organizational mechanism utilized to reduce job overload experienced by employees with the aim of eliminating the stressors.
JOB ROTATION: This is an organizational technique utilized to move employees from one job to another with the aim of enabling such employees experience new skills and knowledge in task accomplishment.
SOCIAL SUPPORT: This uniquely involves the network of activities, social relationships that enable employees to experience satisfaction of certain essential needs.
STRESS MANAGEMENT: This involves the entire techniques or methods that will be useful in the management of employee stress at work.