The study is determined to examine the relationship between social pressure and the employment process. the survey method was used to examine the impact of social pressure on the employment process in some selected oil firms in Port Harcourt. A self-designed questionnaire was used to collect data from the respondents. The population of the study was made up of one hundred respondents (100) respondents using non-probability sampling technique, make up of fifty (50) staff from NNPC Port Harcourt and fifty (50) staff from Shell Petroleum Port Harcourt. The Yaro Yemen’s formula was used to determine the sample size of 80. The simple percentage was used to analyze the study data. Findings amongst others reveals that there is a significant impact of social pressure on the employment process. Based on the findings of the study the following recommendations were made that the government should ensure that the activities of trade union are being monitored to lessing their influence on the employment process of oil firms in Rivers State, management should not consider religion sentiments during employment process, management should ensure that bribery and corruption are totally not part of the employment processes of oil firms in Rivers state, and finally management should also make sure that employment is not granted based on sentiments.
TABLE OF CONTENT
TITLE PAGE i
CHAPTER 1 1
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY 1
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS 4
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 5
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS 5
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY 6
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY 6
1.7 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY 6
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS 7
CHAPTER 2 8
LITERATURE REVIEW 8
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 8
2.1 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK 8
2.1.1 OVERVIEW OF SOCIAL PRESSURE 9
2.1.2DIMENSIONS OF SOCIAL PRESSURE 10
2.1.3 EMPLOYMENT PROCESS 11
2.1.3 MEASURES OF EMPLOYMENT PROCESS 12
2.1.4 SOCIAL INFLUENCE PRESSURE 14
2.2 Theoretical framework 14
2.2.1Social Bond Theory 14
2.2.2 Mead’s theory of social development 17
2.2.3 Social control and stigmatization 17
2.3 Empirical Framework 18
CHAPTER 3 21
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 21
3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN 21
3.2 SAMPLING PDESIGN 21
3.3 POPULATION OF THE STUDY 21
3.4 SAMPLE SIZE 21
3.5 METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION 22
3.6 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS 23
CHAPTER 4 24
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS 24
4.1 DATA COLLECTION AND PRESENTATION 24
4.2 DATA ANALYSIS 25
4.3 DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS 30
CHAPTER 5 33
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 33
5.1 SUMMARY 33
5.2 CONCLUSION 33
5.3 RECOMMENDATIONS 35
APPENDIX I 38
APPENDIX II 39
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The term “pressure” implies the process that influences people to do something that they might not otherwise choose to do.
According to Hartney (2011) social pressure refers to the influences that one can have on each other. Pressure may be present in the workplace, or within the society, it can affect people of all ages but here, the focus is on pressure as it influences employment process Hartney (1990).
Social pressure is the influence that is exerted on a person or group by another person or group. It includes rational argument, persuasion, conformity and company’s reputation, brand equity, or productivity. If activists attention to a company’s poor environment record the pressure could dissuade consumers from also buying it’s products, cause some investors to shun it’s stock, and reduce productivity by hurting employee morale and motivation.
In most organization today, social pressure has influenced many individuals, they now indulge themselves in corruption which occurs because some individuals are willing to use illicit means to maximize personal or corporate profit. However, in order for these individuals to become involved in corrupt activity, circumstances must exist which do not prevent or discourage them for doing so.
Corruption can take many forms that vary in degree from the minor use of influence to institutionalized bribery. Transparency definition of corruption is: The abuse of entrusted power for private gain” This can mean not only financial gain but also non-financial advantages (Rose-Ackerman 1999; Moody-Stuart 1997).
Nepotism is also one thing that affects employment process, nepotism is a boon or bane for the organization. It is nothing but a favoritism shown by the company to the relatives or friends of the employer or the owner. When the friends or the relatives are granted a new job, promotion or higher career opportunity, regardless or merit, the act is known as nepotism. At times the manager develops a like or dislike towards a particular team member and act according.
Corruption takes many shapes, starting with embezzlement, bribery, rituals, rigging in elections and so on.
Embezzlement of public funds is common. Many leaders have helped boost the economies of other nations by depositing embezzled money in foreign banks.
On many occasions, people have bribed some top officers to do wrong things to their favor. Some managers and leaders have been sued by opponents, but the sued followed the back door, bribing barristers and judges. Some employees find their way into the office in the organization some are there not by merit, but through a kind of bribery called sorting. Some rich men in the society bribe managers of an organization and also head of departments to secure admission for their children or relatives. When this kind of dirty practice is conducted, those who would made it on merit are cheated, as no admission will be offered to them (Prisca John, 2017).
It is not new to any Nigerian to heart that corruption parades it self in most organizations. There are certain things that managers do that deserves “hot punishment” most managers use the opportunity they have to take advantage of other, harassment of women by top officials or managers and pressure to sleep with them in common. The most painful part of it is that some of them are married, yet they are not satisfied. After some of the female undergraduates submit to the managers request, they are rewarded with work space. Corruption is one of the biggest challenges faced by most organization today. Fraudulent internet activity is another face of corruption, graduates and non-graduates who lacks the knowledge and skills to help them earn money find joy and deserves serious punishment.
Among the classes of offences committed in Nigeria, both the senate and members of house of representative are working hard to see that those caught in such fraud act face the punishment they deserve without any favor (Eskeland & Thiele 1999; Fjeldstad 1999).
Some Nigerians who are mainly youths, have been scamming their fellow citizens sing illegal means. Some host websites online and claim to be giving jobs to job seekers and scam any who fall prey to their tricks. They tell job seekers to make certain payments for processing documents without them knowing that they will not be issued any job. Some Nigerians have been stolen from by cyber criminals.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS
Social pressure consists of the comments, criticisms, attitudes and emotions of people directed against other people who do or say things that those employing the pressure do not approve of. It is a method of changing and controlling the behavior of other people, both on the “micro” level (i.e. among acquaintances, friends and family), and also on the “macro” level (as a technique of social engineering and control). Social pressures are social influences such as bribery, trade union, Nepotism and religion which are capable of frustrating the employment process of selection, interview process and recruitment. Reports have shown that there has been a downward trend in employment process due to the selfish attitude of organizational management in Nigeria.
The problem in this research work are the ingredience of corruption that occurs in organizations or companies like bribery, nepotism, religious influence, which demoralize the standard of an organization by bringing in sub-standard workforce or man power into the organizations workstream.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The main objective of the study is to examine the relationship between social pressure and employment process. The specific objectives of the study are as follows:
1. To examine the relationship between trade union and employment process.
2. To examine the relationship between religion and the employment process.
3. To examine the relationship between bribery and employment process.
4. To examine the relationship between nepotism and employment process.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
i. Does trade union influence employment process?
ii. Does religion sentiments influences employment process?
iii. Does bribery influence affects employment process?
iv. Does nepotism influence affects employment process?
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
One of the main reasons this study is being conducted is because society’s expectation on social pressure effort will be improved in gaining momentum and fast becoming a standard practice. However, in order for Social pressure to be effective to bring value to the people (such as improving their employment opportunities), the society’ will have a deeper insight to the benefit of Social pressure.
This study is also significant because it will be able to unveil the roles of social pressure on the employment process to the various employees, stakeholders, mangers, scholars etc.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study examines the relationship between social pressure and employment process. The study limit scope to some selected oil firms in Port Harcourt Metropolis Rivers State which include NNPC and Shell Petroleum.
1.7 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
The followings are limitations to the research work.
Finance: Accessing fund for the research work as difficult and this to a great extent limited the quality of research activity.
Time: The time allocated to the research work was not sufficient to give room for further intensive work on the field of study.
Organization Policy: Policies of some of the organizations visited limited the level of information received. The personnel of the firms were not willing to give information, stating that it was against the organization’s policy.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
There is need for every work in a research proposal and of course in any research report to be clear as to its meaning, since words have different meaning in different context.
Social: Relating to society or its organization.
Pressure: Continuous physical force exerted on or against an object by something in contact with it.
Employment: The state of having paid work.
Process:A series of actions or steps taken in order to achieve a particular end.