The research work is systematically arranged to provide useful information on the role of Planning as an essential tool for effective administration and management. The research instrument adept in this work was interviews and questionnaire. The two instruments used yielded enough information in completing the project Also, data collection from secondary sources such as journals, text books, magazines etc. This study reviewed that 7up bottling company, adapted planning in it management and this is its secret of its success in business when compared with other bottling companies in the same industry. I therefore recommend every organization; public or private should map out time planning in other to achieve their organizational objective / goals.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE i
TABLE OF CONTENTS vii
CHAPTER 1 1
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY 1
1.2 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY: 3
1.3 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM: 4
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS: 4
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY: 5
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY: 5
1.7 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY: 5
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS: 6
CHAPTER 2 9
LITERATURE REVIEW 9
2.1 THE CONCEPT AND FUNCTIONS OF PLANNING AND CONTROL: 9
2.2 FUNCTION OF MANAGEMENT: 10
2.2.1. PLANNING FUNCTION: 11
2.2.2. ORGANIZING FUNCTION: 12
2.2.3. DIRECTING FUNCTION: 13
2.2.4. MANAGERS CONTROL ACTIVITIES: 14
2.2.5. MANAGERS COORDINATE ACTIVITIES: 14
2.2.6. MANAGERS ORGANISE STAFF POSITION: 14
2.2.7. MANAGERS PLAN AND SET POLICIES: 15
2.2.8. MANAGERS MAKE / TAKE DECISION(s): 15
2.2.9. MANAGERS FOCUS ON OBJECTIVES: 16
2.3 CHARACTERISTICS OF PLANNING: 17
2.4 PLANNING TOOLS AND TECHNIQUE: 18
2.5 BENEFIT OF PLANNING: 20
2.6 TYPES OF PLAN: 20
2.7 BARRIERS OF EFFECTIVE PLANNING: 22
2.8. OVERCOMING PLANNING BARRIERS: 22
2.9 PROBLEM AFFECTING AN EFFECTIVE PLANNING AND CONTROL IN THE ORGANISATION: 23
2.10 SUMMARY OF LITERATURE REVIEW: 24
CHAPTER 3 26
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 26
3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN: 26
3.2 POPULATION: 27
3.3 SAMPLE SIZE: 27
3.4 METHOD OF DATE COLLECTION: 28
CHAPTER 4 30
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS 30
4.1 QUESTIONNAIRE ANALYSIS: 30
4.2 TEST OF HYPOTHESIS: 36
4.3 DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS: 41
CHAPTER FIVE 42
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 42
5.1 SUMMARY: 42
5.2 CONCLUSION: 43
5.4 RECOMMENDATION: 44
APPENDIX 1 49
APPENDIX II 50
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Planning is one of the managerial activities of deciding on the course of action which must be followed to reach stated goals and objectives. Planning is therefore used to anticipate the future and discover alternative courses of action, then set guidelines for future decisions.
Planning is future orientated and involves prediction of events and managing uncertainties. Planning according to Maxwell (2004) is defined as activity by which managers analyzed present condition and determine ways of reaching a desired future state. Hence each worker in an organization must have some ideas of the general plan set by his superior. With this understanding, he can then lay-out his own concrete plan which must be specific. The purpose of every plan requires managers to study present conditions and to decide on the objective to meet at some future point in time.
Planning characteristics can be analyze as relating to conditions to relatives certainty and uncertainty, e.g. What machines can be used and how long can the machines perform to serve organizational need. Planning is intellectual basically a mental works reflective thinking Imagination and foresight are utilized. Planning Involves future management, members trying to look ahead an anticipate eventualities for contingencies.
Planning is persuasive and continues a never ending activity. Planning and timing, planning works with timing, it is tied to horizontal goal setting, budgeting, forecasting and policy making are all timely activities.
Planning tools and techniques depends on the types of activities and the dimensions to be planned. In predicting the future, various forecasting economic conditions, sales of a particular product, supply of scarce resources amount of revenue and crisis within a given time period.
Planning have been discovered to aid organization in the area of purposeful and orderly activities, it also point-out the need for future changes, answers what if questioned, it provides a basis for control, it encourage achievement, it compel virtualization of entirely, increases and balances vitalization of facilities, assist managers n gaining status. Managers uses goals and objects to implement an effective planning strategy, planning therefore, involves the use of control, staffing, organizing and leadership style of getting goals and objective achieved through people and resources. Managers make decision, decisions are usually chosen from among alternative available for the purpose of achieving stated goals, and the quality of decision reached determines the extent of organizational performance. Decisions are as a result of management conscious and mental activities. Decisions are directed towards a purpose. The decision-making purpose of management is however affecting the firm such as the effects of management policies i.e. tariffs on business growth, completion technology etc.
Therefore, external variable that affect management plans which are usually known as the external uncontrollable environment. Internal environment plans are quality of personnel, machines, technology product quality etc. every end and desire and product of management plan is usually to satisfy customers. This implies that the plan of management is customer’s oriented which is more productive to organizations that plans are bent on production oriented.
Every plan is a risk which must be adequately monitored using an effective control strategy; this implies that planning and control are inseparable factors if organizational goals and objective are to be achieved
1.2 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY:
The broad objective of this study is to analyze the effect of planning as an essential tool for effective administration and management. And the specific objectives includes;
Determine what planning is all about.
Determine the characteristics of planning.
Determine the various strategies of planning.
Determine the problems affective a qualitative planning technique.
Determine solutions to the study problem.
1.3 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM:
Most managers plan lack the ingredients of an effective planning and control system. Hence, they are ignorant of when to effect plans, how to manage problem within the plan and even in some cases, have to carry-out a plan successfully.
The qualities of leadership style of management are usually a barrier to an effective administration of an organisation. Hence their choices of leadership, when and how to apply them to produce positive effect. There is therefore need for adequate training on the part of management skills and strategies to achieve quality planning.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS:
In cause of carrying our this research, the following questions have been
1. What are the necessary orientations and strategies needed for an effective planning?
2. What is the planning tool and technique does your organization adopt?
3. What is the purpose of control in your organization?
4. On what areas are control exercises in your organization?
5. What are the major aims of control in the organization?
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY:
This study shall benefit the managements as they will be equipped on how to apply planning principles and strategies in carrying out major activities or during production process etc in their organization.
Employees shall benefit from this study, as the study will clarify their roles in making management plan a success.
Government shall also benefit from this study, as it will educate them on policies that affect negatively and positively in organizational plans.
The general public shall also benefit, as it will serve as a reference point for future studies
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY:
This study scope shall be narrowed down to ‘7’ Up Bottling Company, Port Harcourt management staff in administration and marketing department only.
1.7 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY:
The study of experienced some limitations on the areas of inadequate data from respondents as their data was tagged as being confidential questions.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS:
❖ Planning: This is an activity by which managers analysis present conditions to determine ways of reaching a desired future goal. It is also seen as deciding in advance what to do in future. Planning is also a basic management function involving formulation of one or more detailed plans to achieve optimum balance of needs or demands with the available resources. According to Vickers in Alexander 1992 P71) also says that planning is what planers do.
❖ Control: This is the monitoring of plans and specifying deviators as well as setting control standards against future occurrences.
Forecasting: This is the functions of predicting by deploying various types of risks to secure their future ambition for the organisation. It is also a process of making statements about events whose actual outcomes (typically) have not yet been observed.
Organization: This is the plan of putting human and material resources together to achieve stated goals and objectives.
Evaluation: Analyzing critically the plus and minutes, strength and weaknesses of a plan. Evaluation can also be defined as a systematic determination of a subject’s merit, worth and significance, using criteria governed by a set of standards. It can assist an organization, programme, project or any other intervention or initiative to assess any aim, realizable concept / proposal, or any alternative, to help in decision-making to ascertain the degree of achievement or value in regards to the aim and objectives and results of any such action that has been completed.
Staffing: This is the role of deploying square pages into square page. i.e. fixing people in position where they can defined by putting in their best to achieve stated goals and objectives.
Motivation: This has to do with motivating employees by creating conditions in which they may get social psychological satisfaction.
Developing: This is concern with the making of its industry and economic system more advance.
Management: Management is the art of getting things done through people in formally organized group. Management is to forecast and plan, to organize, to command, to co-ordinate and to control.
Goal: A goal is a desired result a person or a system envisions plans and commits to achieve a personal or organizational desired end-point in some sort of assumed development.
Objectives: This is a specific result that a person or system aims to achieve within a time frame and with available resources.
Strategy: This is a method or plan chosen to bring about a desired future, such as achievement of a goal or solution to a problem.
Employment: This process include manpower planning, developing sources of applicants, evaluation of applicants, employment decisions (selection), offers (placement) induction and orientation, transfer, demotion, promotions separations, (retirement, lay-out, discharge, resignation, disability and death etc).