The study has examined job rotation and organizational commitment. The main objective of the study is to examine the relationship between job rotation and organizational commitment. The specific objectives are to examine the relationship between promotion and organizational commitment, to examine the relationship between job transfer and organizational commitment, to examine the relationship between HRM relocation and organizational commitment. The population of this study is designed to constitute all management and junior staff of some selected commercial banks in Port Harcourt metropolis Rivers State which include First Bank, GT Bank and Union Bank. However, for the sake of time constraint the population of the study was made to be one hundred (100), the Yaro Yemens formular was used to determine the sample size of (80). Findings reveals that there is a significant relationship between job rotation and organizational commitment. Based on the findings of the study, summary, conclusion and recommendation are made that there is need to consider and appropriate for job rotation in job commitment evaluation programmes as a crucial executive director, managers need to provide opportunity for increasing job satisfaction and motivation, decreasing absenteesm and job quitting, optimal motivational system need to be determined for implementing job rotation policy, payment process need to be performed base on performance and particularly learning diverse skills in motivational system.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
In today’s rapid pace of technological advancement, job consistency and people repeated tasks do not have the needed efficiency and effectiveness (Akhbari and Zargarani, 2011). As a management approach in the area of human resource management, job rotation helps managers to relocate employees conditionally and pertinently in different positions with different incentives (Mirsepasi, 2014). Management scholars believe that job rotation contributes to enhance employees’ capabilities and their perspectives (Ho et al., 2009). Taking advantage of job rotation techniques based on efficient production strategies, organizations can keep employees motivated and take the required steps toward enriching jobs, reducing ergonomic effects, improving job skills, etc. (Akhbari and Zargarani, 2011).
Job rotation is a way of designing jobs for employees to learn the required skills from different departments and get rid of exhaustion arising from repeated tasks. Facing new tasks and roles will revive and refresh employees and boost their morale (Jorgensen et al. 2005, quoted by Nasiripour et al. 2009). According to research conducted by diplomatic managers and officials, one way of raising employees’ motivation is to have a tool such as job rotation to affect operators’ performance and improve their commitment to their work (Mohsan, Musarrat Nawaz & Sarfraz Khan, 2012).
Agreeing on job rotation in organizations is following by different beliefs and reliable data forming the principles of decision-making (Muller, 2010). By correctly planning for relocation, organizations can solve human resource problems, lead employees’ to have positive perception of their job and organization, and at the same time reduce improper organizational behaviors (such as leaving, absence, and working poor). It is, thus, clear that job rotation is not only an ideal but an undeniable necessity (Majidi, 1987). The importance of job rotation is relatively known to all companies around the world. It is a good approach for organizations to develop employees, managers and executives (Mohsan, Musarrat Nawaz & Sarfraz Khan, 2012). As an alternative tool for designing jobs, job rotation helps in recognition of different skills of different jobs, and to eliminate employees’ fatigue resulting from doing boring tasks. New challenges motivate employees to improve their outputs by boosting their morale (Jorgensen, 2005). It is a process of in-service training to develop future managers by moving from a situation to another to enhance their perception and credit in different contexts (Seibert et al. 2001, quoted by Majidi, 1987). Job rotation is different from training strategies in which employees learn their tasks. It though intensifies their flexibility (Burke & Moore, 2000).
Organizational authors claim that rotating employees from a unit to another is not costly but a necessity to the professional conditions defined as a chance to do tasks in higher levels, to take advantage of higher job benefits and to raise their job performance (Leat, 2007).
Job rotation is a systematic change of employees from a position to another within planned intervals (Dessler & Varkkey, 2009, quoted by Malinski, 2002). Job rotation is a good tool for motivating employees and increasing their commitment to and involvement in a job profitable for organizational effectiveness (Zeira, 1974).
Organizational Commitment as theorized in the three forms identified in literature, as affective, continuance, and normative commitment (Monday et al, 1979; Simmons, 2005; Tsai & Huang, 2008; Islam et al, 2012; Khan et al, 2013). Organizational commitment is a condition in which an employee recognizes himself/herself with a particular organization and its objectives, and wants to remain its participant.
Organizational commitment is not a complementary concept. Allen and Mayer refer to three dimensions of affective commitment, continuous commitment, and normative commitment, all connecting employees to their organization (Sethi & Seth, 2009). Organizational commitment is a multidimensional psychic-mental situation delineating people’s relation with their organization (Gormley & Kennerly, 2010).
Accordingly and with regard to the undeniable necessity of organizational disorders, this paper aims to assess the effect of job rotation – as a tool for human resource management – and study individual and organization consequences.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS
Job rotation is one of the best way of motivating employees by diversifying their activities. This also lengthens the life of organizations which are equipped with higher skilled employees and helps management to act more flexibly (Sanali, Bahron & Oscar, 2013).
Having flexible, handy and skillful employees is a wish for any manger and system. Such people in any organization provide a good ground for facilitating and expediting works, and saving time and resources. One important approach to accomplish this is job rotation (Seyedjavadin, 2013).
Therefore, problems identified in the study are;
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The main objective of the study is to examine the relationship between job rotation and organizational commitment. The specific objectives are as follows:
iii. To examine the relationship between HRM relocation and organizational commitment.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
iii. Does human resources relocation influence and organizational commitment?
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study is significant in the following ways;
Firstly, it will assist the organization to continually plan for the good of their employee’s and also make use of job rotation system to enhance commitment for the good of the organization.
Others who will benefit from this study include, managers, business organizations, higher institutions and the society in general. The study will also add to literature on the subject matter.
1.7 SCOPE/LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
The study is delimited under the following heading: content scope, geographical scope and unit of analysis.
In carrying out an investigation of this native the researcher must of necessity be faced the following constraint.
Firstly, the time constraint’s the time frame provision for this study was short.
Secondly, financial constraints. Usually, a study of this nature involved some level of expenditure therefore, finance was also a limiting factor.
Thirdly, poor response from the respondent and inability to access the entire population of the study. In the next segment significance of the study will be discussed. Lastly, poor measurement instrument.
In the next segment, definition of the study will be discussed.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
There is need for every work in a research proposal and of course in any research report to be clear as to its meaning, since words have different meaning in different context.
COMMITMENT: The state or quality of being dedicated to a cause, activity, etc.
JOB ROTATION: It is a technique used by employers that would use this method on their employees to rotate their assigned jobs throughout their employment.
ORGANIZATION: An organized group of people with a particular purpose, such as a business or government department.
ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT: It is the individual’s psychological attachment to the organization.