1.0 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The increase in oil boom in the 70’s was an era of huge and expensive prospect of doubtful utility and viability. However, the heavy dependence on oil and imported input rendered the Nigerian economy to be sensitive to external shocks with the collapse of the world oil market in the mids 1981, an economic crisis emerged in Nigeria, various control measures were put in place in order to correct the disturbing situation between 1982 – 1985 but these measures failed to deal effectively with the fundamental economic and financial problems confronting the economy which was deteriorating.
The nation began to face a situation of persistence and deteriorating balance of payment problem, the external debt continually rise, the emotion of international credit worthiness and the acute shortage of raw materials and consumer goods, as agriculture suffered and severely, neglected, the country (Nigeria) was at the point of collapsing.
Considering the above circumstances, there is need for national economic reform which the federal government eventually came up with Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP) in 1988 as a strategy to end the deformation of the nation economy and achieve a turn around in the fortunes.
The current global economic depression facing the world has been described by the world economic and financial experts as the longest and deepest depression in the post war period. Major industrial developed countries share in this performance characterized by declining growth rate, high inflationary pressure, increase in number of unemployment and this trend had serious adverse effect on the economic of developing countries of which Nigeria is included.
The present development is quite affecting a substantial number of Nigeria contemporary business most of them are on the path of decline, leading to folding up of some companies and many others laying off their staff and equipment as a result of operational hardship with lack of ability to expand and decline in sales volume as well as profit.
With the present difficult situation in the Nigeria businss environment. There is need for businesses to be re-structured for survival in response to changes that is occurring in the economic environment either a company decide whether to acquire, merge or sell part or whole of its existing business thus, given birth to a stronger, bigger and more profitable outfit that is capable of surviving amidst strong competition.
1.1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF OANDO NIGERIA PLC
Oando Plc commence its business operation as a petroleum marketing company in Nigeria in 1956 under the name “ESSO West Africa Incorporated” a subsidiary of Export Corporation of the USA. In 1969, the company was incorporated under Nigeria laws as “ESSO standard Nigeria Limited. In 1976, the Nigeria Government brought ESSO interest and thus, became the 100% owner of the company. The company was then rename “Unipetrol Nigeria Limited”.
On 1st March, 1991 the company became a public limited company and was known as Unipetrol Nigeria Plc in the same year, 60% of the company’s shares was sold to the Nigeria public under the first phase the then privatization exercise and the company was quoted on the Nigeria stock exchange in February 1992.
In 2000, under the 2nd phase of the Federal Government of Nigeria’s privatization programme, ocean and soil services limited became a core investor by acquiring 305 of the Federal Government’s 40% equity stock in the company, the remaining 10% was sold to the Nigeria public. The investment in the then Unipetrol Nigeria Plc by Ocean Oil Services Limited was with support of its International Technical Partners Compania Espanola De Petroleos (CESPSA) who are currently 2nd largest oil group in Spain and ranks among the top 10 oil group in Europe. CEPSA is a fully Integrated Petroleum Company involved in exploration and production, petrochemicals natural gas, trading, refining, distributing and marketing.
In August 2002, the company acquired Agip Petrol’s 60% stake of Agip Nigeria Plc, the sale of the 60% interest of Agip Petrol International was the result of an international bid conducted by Agip petrol international B.V with the assistance of an international adviser during which Agip Petroleum International selected to them Unipetrol Nigeria Plc following the acquisition of Agip Nigeria Plc the company was again i.e. branded to Oando Plc in 2003 and emerged as Nigeria 2nd largest company in the downstream sector of the oil industry with 15.64% market share.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE GENERAL PROBLEM
Due to the present economic situation of the country (Nigeria), report indicated that many Nigeria businesses and corporate organizations have closed up while many more may soon close up, even those that have survived, it has been a mergical survival and they are operating far below installed and optimum productive capacities leaving none in doubt that the situation is bad enough, the following problems are notice.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
No business is embarked upon without a set of objectives to be accomplished. Merger and acquisition are common features of modern commercial sense. Hence, the intended objectives of conducting this study are as follows:
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The researcher hope that at the completion of this study, it will contribute immensely to the existing literature on business organization and Oando Nigeria Plc in particular towards advancement of knowledge in thee area of business merging, other corporate bodies in Nigeria will also find the findings and recommendations useful especially those that are hit by the present economic woe and are considering closing down a the only option.
Government and its agencies that arte establish to regulate and approve merger and acquisition proposal will also find this research work very beneficial especially in enhancing their operations.
This research work also intends to serve as a good reference material for learning among students of various institution of higher learning, and other researchers in the area of merger and acquisition in field of business administration and management which is the bane of economic development of the country.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTION
For this research work to be successful certain question has to be answer in request to the contributions of merger and acquisition to organizational survival in Nigeria.
1.6 STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS
“According to Egejule and Ogwo (1990). Hypothesis is a tentative and testable explanation usually in a declarative form of the relationship between variables either specific or general.
Ho That merger and acquisition does not bring about improvement in market performance.
Hi That merger and acquisition bring about improvement in market performance.
Ho That merger and acquisition does not lead to increase in profitability of the combined firms.
H2 Tat merger and acquisition lead to increase in profitability of the combined firms.
1.7 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
To understand a research project of this nature, the scope is normally defined with respect to geographical and time dimension. This research work is concerned with the he general effect of merger and acquisition as strategy for organizational survival with respect to Oando in Nigeria Plc. 2007 -2008.
It is a common knowledge that empirical studies in business organization yielded results which have to be taken with the proverbial “pinch of salt” as a result of poor data base. In this regards, the difficulties experiences is ranging from.
Despite the above mentioned limitations and many other unmentioned, the information were confidential and the study has been systematically carried out devoid of any bias and in line with the earlier stated objectives.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
1. Merger and Acquisition (M & A): A merger is an arrangement by which all the assets and resources of two or more companies are brought together under the control of one company which is owned jointly by stockholders of the original companies.
Acquisition is the whole transfer and control of assets, liabilities, employees, management technical relationship and expert etc of one corporation to another.
2. Economic of Scale: This refers to the fact that the combined company can often reduce duplicate operational costs relative to theoretically, the same revenue strum, thus increasing profit.
3. Synergy: This refers to better use of complementary resources. (i.e. 2 + 2=5).
4. Risk Diversification: This is the situation where a company which is in a strong position within its own market either in terms of cash flows or market share, decides to extends its influence by acquiring another company usually in a different line of business, result to a wider product range.
5. WOE: A long trouble confronting business environment..
6. Cross Selling: A company buying a stock broker could then sell its products to the broker’s customers, while the broker can sign up the company’s customers for brokerage accounts.
7. Manager’s Hbris: This refers to manager’s overconfidence about expected synergies from M & A which results in overpayment for the target company.
8. Anti-Trust Cycle: Is a regulatory device that analyze the impact of merger on market and to control monopolistic situation and other trade restriction activities that lead to adverse implication for an economy.
9. (NEPD):National Economic Policy and Development
10. CAMA: Company and Allied Matter Act.